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Further reading on "Dual System" in Germany


UNESCO-UNEVOC has compiled a short selection of acdemic or professional articles that might help to clarify the signification and the use of the term "Dual system". It goes thus beyond the definitions stored in TVETipedia while not pretending to offer an exhaustive bibliography on the topic.

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Dual training at a glance – an illustrated introduction (additional information) By BMBF (2014)

This first reference was published by the German ministry for education and research (BMBF) and provides a concise and up-to-date overview of the German dual system: History, legislation, advantages etc.

The selected quotes describe how the dual system concretely works as well its weight in the German system and its results in terms of employment.


Germany’s dual vocational training system: a model for other countries? By Dr.Dieter Euler, commissioned by the Bertelsmann Stiftung (2013)

The positive results of the Dual System in Germany – highlighted by the previous reference – brought the question of its transferability to other countries. This recent study, commissioned by a German private non-profit foundation, raise here fundamental questions: “Which elements of Germany’s dual system are essential and provide a basis for exporting it to other countries? How can those elements be structured to make them more readily adaptable to conditions in the importing country?” It reviews former initiatives and draw informative international comparisons.

In the selected quotes, the author explains why the German dual system cannot just be “copied” from a country to another.


Why Do German Companies Invest in Apprenticeships? The ‘Dual System’ Revisited By Klaus Schaack, in cooperation with UNESCO-UNEVOC (2008)

As coined by the previous reference, the dual system is “the result of historical and cultural forces”. This essay shows it well: In order to understand “why do German companies invest in Apprenticeships ?”, the author explained how – and on which conceptual ideas - the current system was progressively built and which risks this ‘cultural construction’ carries for the German society and economy.

In the selected quotes, the author explains the key-notion of Beruf (literally, “vocation”), and its consequences on German vocational education and training. In a second set of quotes, the relative inertia of the system as well as the lack of democratic balances are criticized.


Innovations in Vocational Education and Training – a Successful Paradigm Shift within the Dual System in Germany By Georg Spöttl, Lars Windelband (2013)

This academic article takes a different point of view by showing how the dual system succeeded to “reform” itself in the recent years, and to adapt to the global economy. If the authors do not question the legitimacy of the dual system, they do stress a rising concern: the “transition” system, that is growing aside it.

In the selected quotes, the “transition” system is defined as well as the reasons behind its growth and the threat it represents for the dual system.



See also:


This article is an element of the TVETipedia Glossary.



page date 2016-01-11






page date 2014-07-24

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