Further reading on "Entrepreneurship education and training"
UNESCO-UNEVOC has compiled a short selection of academic or professional articles that might help to clarify the signification and the use of the term "Entrepreneurship education". It goes thus beyond the definitions stored in TVETipedia while not pretending to offer an exhaustive bibliography on the topic.
Towards an entrepreneurial culture for the twenty-first century By Carmela Salzano, UNESCO/ILO
This frequently cited report offers a strong case for entrepreneurship education (and “Enterprise education”) for growth and sustainable development. The first part describes the role of entrepreneurship in societies, starting with a definition of "Entrepreneurship" and a categorization for "Entrepreneurs", which both figure in the selected quotes.
“…the true meaning of entrepreneurship goes far beyond the act of starting and running a business. Entrepreneurs are essentially ideas people, who seize an opportunity to generate value or well-being in society by providing for unmet needs with a new product or service, or by carrying out an existing activity in a novel or more efficient way. They look for what is changing, what is needed and what is missing and then undertake (entreprendre) the task of achieving their vision, marshalling resources, demonstrating ingenuity in the face of obstacles and assuming responsibility for any risks along the way …
Different types of relationship between entrepreneurship and the world of work:
From writers and photographers, to carpenters and interior design consultants, many people run their careers by going freelance. Working at home or lugging a laptop to their favourite thinking spot, freelancers promote their services to whoever has work to be done. …
Contract workers benefit from the diversity of opportunities created by employers who farm out their jobs on a project-by-project basis. They pick and choose the projects they prefer, learn to live with risk and balance out their work to get them through the lean times. …
Millions of people around the world choose to start their own business every year, working long hours to turn their ideas into business plans and to build something out of nothing – creating jobs for themselves and for others. …
Intrapreneurs, or enterprising employees, bring their ideas to fruition by using existing resources, networks and business structures, creating entrepreneurial opportunities within an established organization. Within the bounds of their jobs, they come up with projects that fulfill their goals and bolster their company’s bottom line at the same time. …
Those who want to make the world a better place − on their terms − often choose social entrepreneurship, championing causes ranging from community development to international aid, creating and running programmes that serve society’s social, but often non revenue-generating needs.…UNESCO/ILO, pp5;9
“Towards an entrepreneurial culture for the twenty-first century: stimulating entrepreneurial spirit through entrepreneurship education in secondary schools”, Authored by Carmela Salzano; edited by Sonia Bahri and Klaus Haftendorn, UNESCO/ILO 2006, ISBN: 978923104344
Entrepreneurship Education and Training Programs around the World Dimensions for Success By Alicia Robb, Alexandria Valerio, and Brent Parton, World Bank
"Who do EET programs target? (b) What outcomes do EET programs aim to achieve? (c) What dimensions shape these outcomes? and(d) At what cost are outcomes achieved?".
To answer those questions the World Bank relies on a simple but rather exhaustive framework for entrepreneurship education programmes, transcripted in the selected quotes.
"...Entrepreneurship Education and training programs can be classified under two related but distinct categories: education programs and training programs. Broadly speaking, both aim to stimulate entrepreneurship, but they are distinguished from one another by their variety of program objectives or outcomes. While differing from program to program, entrepreneurship education (EE) programs tend to focus on building knowledge and skills about or for the purpose of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship training (ET) programs, by contrast, tend to focus on building knowledge and skills, explicitly in preparation for starting or operating an enterprise. Advancing the classification of EET, programs can also be distinguished by their target audiences (see figure 2.1). The academic nature of EE means these programs target two groups in particular: secondary education students and higher education students, the latter including both graduate and undergraduate students enrolled in formal degree-granting programs. By contrast, ET programs target a range of potential and practicing entrepreneurs who are not part of formal, degree-granting programs. Potential entrepreneurs targeted by ET programs can include, at one end of the range, vulnerable, unemployed, inactive individuals or necessity-driven potential entrepreneurs, and at the other end highly skilled, innovation-led, or opportunistic potential entrepreneurs. Likewise, the range of practicing entrepreneurs runs from individuals owning informal, micro- and small enterprises, all the way to high-growth-potential enterprise owners.
Determining the outcomes of EET programs is a complex and multidimensional challenge, regardless of whom a program targets. The task is complicated in part because the intended outcomes of EET programs can vary substantially from program to program. Therefore, this study draws upon existing EET research to propose a way of conceptualizing both the results EET programs seek and the factors that can shape those outcomes.
Outcomes for EET programs can be categorized into four domains. The first, entrepreneurial mind-sets, refers to the socio-emotional skills and overall awareness of entrepreneurship associated with entrepreneurial motivation and future success as an entrepreneur (such as self-confidence, leadership, creativity, risk propensity, motivation, resilience, and self-efficacy). The second, entrepreneurial capabilities, refers to entrepreneurs’ competencies, knowledge, and technical skills associated with their entrepreneurship (such as management skills, accounting, marketing, and technical knowledge). The third, entrepreneurial status, refers to the temporal state of a program beneficiary as measured through entrepreneurial activities and beyond (such as by starting a business, becoming employed, or achieving a higher income). Lastly, the fourth domain, entrepreneurial performance, refers explicitly to how indicators of a venture’s performance have changed as a result of an intervention (such as by gaining higher profits, increased sales, greater employment of others, or higher survival rates).The Conceptual Framework also outlines three dimensions that available research has shown to influence the range of EET outcomes (see figure 2.2): (i) the context within which programs are implemented; (ii) the characteristics of individual participants; and (iii) the functional characteristics of the programs themselves." …World Bank, pp2-4
Entrepreneurship education and training programs around the world: dimensions for success, by Alicia Robb, Alexandria Valerio, and Brent Parton, Washington, District of Columbia: World Bank, 2014
Entrepreneurship Education and Training : Insights from Ghana, Kenya and Mozambique By Alicia Robb, Alexandria Valerio, and Brent Parton, World Bank
Deriving from the previous reference, this report focuses on Entrepreneurship education in Ghana, Kenya and Mozambique. Based on those national cases, the authors go deeper into the challenges and limits of entrepreneurship education programmes. In the selected quotes, the lack of scientific data on "EET" is well shown alongside with the difficulties to adapt programmes to diverse audience targets.
"...The question remains, however, whether entrepreneurial success can be taught and, if so, what is the best way to teach it. Preliminary research has reached mixed conclusions across a range of outcomes associated with EET programs. Furthermore, findings are mixed regarding the extent to which programs are able support various individuals, from poor and vulnerable groups to educated aspiring entrepreneurs with significant work experience. Findings are further complicated by the fact that training and education programs are delivered in heterogeneous cultural and educational contexts. Yet, despite thin evidence, and in particular a lack of information on outcomes and costs, the global EET experiment continues. …
Specific EET programs have demonstrated great promise. However, much more fine-grained analysis needs to be done, particularly with regard to the validity of EET as an antipoverty intervention as well as its direct connection to improving business performance in terms of enhanced profits and prospects for firm growth. …
With such diverse target audiences, these EET programs naturally vary in their emphasis. In all three countries, programs targeting vulnerable potential entrepreneurs often have poverty reduction as their goal rather than skill acquisition per se. Those focused on youth often make job acquisition a priority. Secondary school EET programs, by contrast, are more likely to devote energy to developing a broad understanding of business principles. EET programs are insufficiently tailored to their participants’ backgrounds and needs, and they suffer from lack of coordination and information sharing. Despite the program diversity just described, too many EET programs fail to tailor their curriculum and methods to their audience and its needs."World Bank pp2-4
"Entrepreneurship education and training: insights from Ghana, Kenya, and Mozambique", Edited by Alicia Robb, Alexandria Valerio, and Brent Parton, Washington, District of Columbia: World Bank, 2014|ISBN: 9781464802782
The Oslo Agenda for Entrepreneurship Education in Europe By the European Commission
The Oslo Agenda was written almost ten years ago but still provides many relevant “proposals” for stakeholders of every level in order to “step up progress in promoting entrepreneurial mindsets”.
“The aim of the "Oslo Agenda for Entrepreneurship Education" is to step up progress in promoting entrepreneurial mindsets in society, systematically and with effective actions. The Agenda is a rich menu of proposals, from which stakeholders can pick actions at the appropriate level, and adapt them to the local situation. Relevant actors are indicated for each one of the proposed actions. The Agenda is an outcome of the Conference on "Entrepreneurship Education in Europe: Fostering Entrepreneurial Mindsets through Education and Learning"-an initiative of the European Commission jointly organised with the Norwegian government - held in Oslo on 26 – 27 October 2006, which followed the Communication from Commission on the same topic. The Conference aimed to exchange experiences and good practice, and to propose ways to move forward in this area. The ideas advanced in Oslo by a broad representation of stakeholders (e.g. national,regional and local governments, business associations and entrepreneurs, promoters of programmes, school teachers, academics and students) result now in a detailed catalogue of initiatives, based on successful experiences in Europe, which could be usefully taken in the EU and in neighbouring countries.”EU commision
This article is an element of the TVETipedia Glossary.
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