World TVET Database - Country Profiles

Benin

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Benin
published: 2014-10-29

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

TVET is known in Benin as l’enseignement et la formation technique et professionnel (EFTP) and its mission is to create a link between the education system and the labour market. Specifically TVET programmes aim to promote sustained agricultural and industrial development.

TVET strategy

The promotion of TVET is supported by a number of guiding documents, as follows:

(1) The Education Sector Development Plan 2006-2015 (Plan Décennal de Développement du Secteur de l’Education 2006-2015) states that the development of TVET is the nation’s second priority, after the development of the primary education system. Specifically the Plan mentions two areas of improvement:

  • Link TVET to the labour market. The National Council for TVET (Conseil National de l’EFTP) must assess the needs of the labour market, and especially in the agriculture and industrial sectors.
  • Enhance TVET programmes. More TVET related institutions need to be built and there should be a focus on TVET teacher and trainer education. Short 3-6 month TVET programmes should be developed, targeted towards socially vulnerable groups.
(2) The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2011-2015) aims to enhance the TVET system and alleviate poverty and unemployment. It has been developed in collaboration with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) with the following objectives for the TVET system:

  • Develop and diversify TVET programmes;
  • Improve gender equity;
  • Orientate vocational schools and programmes towards target based projects in order to link TVET to the needs of the market; and
  • Enhance training opportunities in private and public institutions.
(3)The 2004 Policy Letter on the Education Sector (Lettre de Politique du Secteur de l’Education) emphasized the need to restructure and adapt the TVET system to the social and economic realities in Benin. For this purpose, the Letter proposed the following TVET objectives:

  • Modernize and diversify the TVET programmes by focusing on the needs of the market, and by developing continuing TVET programmes in order to enhance the qualifications of the work force;
  • Enhance the quality of TVET programmes by focusing on the definition and structure of formal TVET programmes, and the improvement of TVET teacher and trainer training programmes; and
  • Develop short TVET programmes orientated towards socially vulnerable groups.
TVET legislation

  • Decree n° 2001-336 (2001) has established the ministry responsible for TVET in Benin – the Ministry of Secondary Education, Technical and Vocational Education, and Integration of Youth (Ministère de l’Enseignement Secondaire, de la Formation Technique et Professionnelle, de la Reconversion et de l’Insertion des Jeunes (MESFTPRIJ). It defines the ministry’s organization, attributes, and functioning.
  • The Education Orientation Law (2003) has established the national education system. The Law also highlights the need to diversify TVET programmes at the secondary and tertiary education levels in order to meet the needs of the market.
  • Law n°2005-33 (2005) defines the TVET system, and particularly states the type of institutions which are allowed to teach TVET. The Law highlights the need to promote access to education for vulnerable groups and girls.
Sources:

  • International Monetary Fund (2011). Benin: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.
  • Republic of Benin (2004). Policy Letter on the Education Sector. Accessed: 22 July 2014.
  • Republic of Benin (2006). Education Sector Development Plan 2006-2015. Accessed: 21 July 2014.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Benin. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Benin. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

Upon completion of 6 years of primary education, students proceed to secondary education which consists of 13 years of schooling. The secondary education level is composed of two sub-systems; general and technical secondary education.

Formal TVET system

TVET programmes are offered at the secondary level of education and are available to students that have completed the 5th year class. Technical secondary education is composed of two cycles, each lasting three years. Secondary TVET programmes cover six areas of study:

  • Science and industry (les sciences et techniques industrielles (STI);
  • Science and administration and management (les sciences et techniques administrative et de gestion (STAG);
  • Science and agriculture (les science et techniques agricoles);
  • Health, family and social education (la santé, l’enseignement familial et social (EFS); and
  • Hotel and restaurant management (l’hôtellerie-restauration)
Secondary education level TVET graduates have access to TVET programmes at the tertiary education level.

TVET at the tertiary level is provided by university faculties, elite schools (grandes écoles), and university institutes. Undergraduate courses last three to four years, depending on the specialization and programme. Postgraduate TVET programmes last two years.

Apprenticeships

Apprenticeships last 3 years and can either follow a dual system (work in an enterprise along with learning in a training centre or technical school) or be organized in specialized TVET centres where school drop-outs or low-skilled youth are trained in craft occupations. Both types of apprenticeships are intended for young people of at least 14 years of age.

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Non-formal TVET is provided by various ministries. For example,

  • the Ministry for Work, Public Functions, Administrative Reform, and Social Dialogue (Ministère du Travail, de la Fonction Publique, de la Réforme Administrative et Institutionnelle chargé du Dialogue Social) provides TVET training for workers from different occupations.
  • the Ministry for Culture, Literacy, Crafts and Tourism (Ministère de la Culture, de l’Alphabétisation, de l’Artisanat, et du Tourisme (MCAAT) provides TVET programmes and technical assistance to those involved in cultural activities, crafts, or the tourism sector.
According to the African Economic Outlook (2014), the private sector in Benin is dominated by the informal sector. However, despite this fact there is no documentation on informal TVET systems.

Sources:

  • African Economic Outlook (2014). Benin. Accessed: 21 July 2014.
  • Ministry for Work, Public Functions, Administrative Reform and Social Dialogue (2014). Mission. Accessed: 21 July 2014.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Benin. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    3. Governance and financing

Governance

The Ministry of Secondary Education, Technical and Vocational Education, and Youth Integration (Ministère de l’Enseignement Secondaire, de la Formation Technique et Professionnelle, de la Reconversion et de l’Insertion des Jeunes (MESFTPRIJ) is in charge of formal secondary TVET education. Specifically the General Education Inspection of the Ministry (l’Inspection Generale Pedagogique du Ministère) provides advice on national TVET and education policies, and defines TVET related objectives in conjunction with the relevant technical departments, including the Department for Technical and Vocational Education.

TVET at the tertiary level is the responsibility of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (Ministère de l'Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique (MESRS).

Non-formal TVET programmes are the responsibility of the various ministries, including:

  • the Ministry for Work, Public Functions, Administrative Reform, and Social Dialogue (Ministère du Travail, de la Fonction Publique, de la Réforme Administrative et Institutionnelle chargé du Dialogue Social);
  • the Ministry for Culture, Literacy, Crafts and Tourism (Ministère de la Culture, de l’Alphabétisation, de l’Artisanat, et du Tourisme (MCAAT); and
  • the Ministry of Microfinance and Youth and Women Employment (Ministère Chargé de la Microfinance, de l’Emploi des Jeunes et des Femmes (MCMEJF).
For example, these ministries are in charge of continuing TVET programmes for their own employees.

Financing

Benin’s public education including the TVET system is funded by the national budget, the private sector and external sources. The Ministry of the Economy and Finances (Ministre de l’Economie et des Finances (MEF), in collaboration with the MESFTPRIJ, are in charge of setting the TVET budget. External funding for TVET serves primarily to finance investment in infrastructure and to provide technical and capacity building assistance. An example of external funding is for example Benin’s collaboration with the French Development Agency (l’Agence Française de Développement (AFD) and the nongovernmental organization Swisscontact.

Private TVET programmes are funded by the institutions themselves, and there is no structure in place to support the private education sector.

Sources:

  • French Development Agency (2014). Benin Projects. Accessed : 21 July 2014.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Benin. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    4. TVET teachers and trainers

TVET secondary teachers are trained at Technical Teacher Training Colleges (école normale supérieure d’enseignement technique (ENSET) at the University of Lokossa. Potential TVET teachers are required to have:

  • a Diploma of Technical Education Teacher (Brevet d’aptitude professionnelle de l’enseignement technique (BAPET): this qualification can be obtained after three years of study and only those who hold at least a Vocational Baccalaureate or undergraduate qualification can be admitted; and
  • a Certificate for Technical Education Teacher (Certificate d’aptitude au professorat de l’enseignement technique (CAPET): this qualification can be obtained after one to two years of study and only those who hold at least a Vocational undergraduate or postgraduate qualification can be admitted.
Sources:

  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Benin. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
1st cycle secondary technical education 3 years Certificate of vocational skills (certificat d’aptitude professionnelle (CAP)
2nd cycle secondary technical education 3 years Vocational baccalaureate (Baccalauréat Professionnelle)
Post-secondary vocational education

The length of tertiary courses and certification awarded depend on the specialization. For example, the higher technical diploma (diplôme d’études techniques supérieures (DETS) is obtained after three years, while the diploma for agriculture (diplôme d’ingénieur agronome (diplôme d’ingénieur agronome) is obtained after four years of studies and fifteen months of optional courses.

Quality assurance

There are three tiers of quality assurance. On the national level the Ministry of Secondary Education, Technical and Vocational Education, and Integration of Youth ( (MESFTPRIJ) is responsible for the quality of formal TVET. Specifically the General Education Inspection of the Ministry (l’Inspection Generale Pedagogique du Ministère) is responsible for formal TVET programmes.

On the departmental level the Departmental directorates for technical and vocational education (Directions départementales des enseignements technique et professionnelle) – under the MESFTPRIJ – are responsible for TVET quality monitoring. On the local level the school director and Teacher-Parent Associations (l’association des parents d’élèves) are responsible for TVET quality in their respective school.

Sources:

  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Benin. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

The Education Sector Development Plan Phase 3/2013-2015 defines a number of objectives and relevant reforms:

  • Develop and diversify TVET programmes;
  • Establish a coherent TVET system and recognize forms of education and qualifications such as; (1) the Attestation of Professional Qualification (l’Attestation de Qualification Professionnelle (AQP), training by dual education which leads to a (2) Certificate of Professional Qualification (Certificat de Qualification Professionnelle (CQP), traditional forms of apprenticeship and TVET which leads to a (3) Certificate of Qualification in Crafts (Certificat de Qualification aux Métiers (CQM), and short training programmes offered by TVET institutions;
  • Strengthen educational supervision and monitoring structures;
  • Improve TVET teachers and trainers through the National Institute of Engineering Training and Capacity Building of Trainers (l’Institut National d’Ingénierie de Formation et de Renforcement des Capacités des Formateurs (INIFRCF);
  • Develop a National Qualifications Framework in cooperation with the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), in order to validate TVET qualifications obtained through non-formal and informal TVET; and
  • Establish the National Agency for Vocational Training and Youth Possibilities (l’Agence Nationale de Formation Professionnelle pour la Reconversion et l’Insertion des Jeunes (ANFPRIJ), in charge of guiding policy on, amongst others, youth employment.
Challenges

According to the Benin Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2011) sponsored by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), TVET faces the following challenges:

  • To enhance and diversify TVET programmes in order to orient more students, and create links to the labour market;
  • To improve the guidance policy for school students in order to orientate more students towards TVET programmes;
  • To improve equity problems, especially focusing on girls and socially vulnerable groups.
Moreover the 2010 Report on the Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Benin (Rapport Spécial 2010 d’Evaluation de la Mise en Œuvre des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement au Benin) states that TVET also faces challenges in:

  • Establishing a coherent national TVET policy;
  • Developing tools to assess efficiency of the administrative and financial management of the TVET system;
  • Enhancing collaboration between the ministry responsible for TVET and the private sector; and
  • Developing cooperation between schools and enterprises in the public sector.
Sources:

  • International Monetary Fund (2011). Benin: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.
  • Republic of Benin (2010). 2010 Report on the Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Benin. Accessed: 22 July 2014.
  • Republic of Benin (2013). Education Sector Development Plan Phase 3/2013-2015. Accessed: 22 July 2014.


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    7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

8.18
8.44
8.71
8.97
9.24
9.51
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+3.25 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
4.13 4.05
female male  
4.26 4.18
female male  
4.39 4.32
female male  
4.52 4.46
female male  
4.65 4.59
female male  
4.78 4.73
female male  

50.53 %

50.46 %

50.39 %

50.33 %

50.29 %

50.25 %



Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2012 revision

GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2006

2007

2008

2009

2010


557

632

739

713

690


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on World Bank Database


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions


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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

Further reading

Abbreviations

  • AFD - French Development Agency (l’Agence Française de Développement)
  • AQP - Attestation of Professional Qualification (l’Attestation de Qualification Professionnelle)
  • BAPET - Diploma of Technical Education Teacher (Brevet d’aptitude professionnelle de l’enseignement technique (BAPET)
  • BEPC - Education certificate of the first cycle (brevet d'études du premier cycle)
  • CAP - Certificate of vocational skills (certificate d’aptitude professionnel)
  • CAPET - Certificate for Technical Education Teacher (Certificate d’aptitude au professorat de l’enseignement technique)
  • CE - Elementary Class
  • CEP - Primary education certificate (certificat d’études primaires)
  • CM - Middle Class
  • CP - Preparatory Class
  • CQM - Certificate of Qualification in Crafts (Certificat de Qualification aux Métiers)
  • CQP - Certificate of Professional Qualification (Certificat de Qualification Professionnelle)
  • DETS - Higher technical diploma (diplôme d’études techniques supérieures)
  • DTI - Industrial technician diploma (diplôme de technicien industriel)
  • ECOWAS - Economic Community of West African States
  • EFS - Health, family and social education (la santé, l’enseignement familial et social)
  • EFTP - l’enseignement et la formation technique et professionnel
  • ENSET - Technical Teacher Training College (école normale supérieure d’enseignement technique)
  • INIFRCF - National Institute of Engineering Training and Capacity Building of Trainers (l’Institut National d’Ingénierie de Formation et de Renforcement des Capacités des Formateurs)
  • MCAAT - Ministry for Culture, Literacy, Crafts and Tourism (Ministère de la Culture, de l’Alphabétisation, de l’Artisanat, et du Tourisme)
  • MCMEJF - Ministry of Microfinance and Youth and Women Employment (Ministère Chargé de la Microfinance, de l’Emploi des Jeunes et des Femmes)
  • MDGs - Millenium Development Goals
  • MEF - Ministry of the Economy and Finances (Ministre de l’Economie et des Finances)
  • MESFTPRIJ - Ministry of Secondary Education, Technical and Vocational Education, and Youth Integration (Ministère de l’Enseignement Secondaire, de la Formation Technique et Professionnelle, de la Reconversion et de l’Insertion des Jeunes)
  • MESRS - Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (Ministère de l'Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique)
  • IMF - International Monetary Fund
  • NQF - National Qualifications Framework
  • STAG - Science and administration and management (les sciences et techniques administrative et de gestion)
  • STI - Science and industry (les sciences et techniques industrielles)




    Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
    Publication Date: 2014-10-29
    Validated by: Ministry of Secondary Education, Technical and Vocational Education, and Youth Integration



page date 2014-12-19

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