World TVET Database - Country Profiles

China

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
China
published: 2013-09-20

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

TVET is an important component of the Chinese education system that has been given more attention in the past years due to the crucial impact it has on enhancing national employment and on training a qualified labour force that necessary to boost the Chinese economy.

TVET strategy

The national TVET policy focuses on:

  • promoting TVET at the secondary level and especially in rural areas;
  • expanding total enrolment of TVET institutions and improving the quality of education;
  • improving coordination between secondary and post-secondary TVET and general education;
  • adjusting courses and curricula to make them well-targeted at practical employment needs;
  • improving the quality of teaching personnel; and
  • promoting better cooperation between industries, employers and TVET institutions.
TVET legislation

TVET is mainly provided for in the Vocational Education Law of the People’s Republic of China adopted in 1996. It contains regulations on vocational school education at various levels and on vocational education in various forms.

The following regulatory documents address different aspects of Chinese TVET:

  • Labour Law (adopted in 1994) assigns to the State: (1) the promotion of professional training through various channels by encouraging and supporting enterprises, institutional organisations, social groups and individuals to carry out professional training; (2) the right to formulate occupational classification, set up professional skills standards for specific occupations and (3) the practice of a professional qualification certificate system, accordingly, the Law Examination and Appraisal Organisations authorises governments to carry out examination and appraisal of the professional skills of workers.
  • Teacher Law of the People’s Republic of China (came into force in 1994): this law introduces measures for improving teacher qualifications and protecting teachers’ rights.
  • Law on Compulsory Education (adopted in 1986): it adopts the system of 9-year compulsory education consisting of primary and lower secondary education.
  • Law on Higher Education (adopted in 1998 and amended in 2015): it provides that all citizens have the right to higher education which consists of specialised education, undergraduate education and post-graduate education.
  • Private Education Promotion Law of the People’s Republic of China (adopted in 2002): establishes non-public schools that mainly provide vocational skills, including training for vocational qualifications.
  • Decision of the State Council on Vigorously Promoting Vocational Education Reform and Development (issued in 2002): determines to promote management and education system reform, strictly implement employment access system, and raise fund from multiple channels.
  • Decision of the State Council on Vigorously Developing the Vocational Education (issued in 2005): develops employment-oriented vocational education that relies on enterprises and makes use of private funds, and improves employment qualification certificate system.
  • National Plan for Medium and Long-term Education Reform and Development of the People’s Republic of China (2010-2020): outlines development priorities in all forms of education including TVET.
  • Decision of the State Council on Accelerating the Development of Modern Vocational Education (issued in 2014): the government should guide the transformation of a batch of general undergraduate education institutes towards applied technology higher education institutes, improve enterprise participation mechanisms, and require teachers to possess both teaching qualification and vocational qualification.
  • Planning for Building Modern Vocational Education System (2014-2020): sets the strategic short-term and long-term goals of establishing a modern vocational education system, including improvement on the legal system and standardization system of Chinese vocational education.
Sources:

  • Hao, Y (2010). China’s Vocational Education and Training, The Next Key Target of Education Promotion. Singapore: National University of Singapore.
  • Ministry of Education (2014). Planning for Building Modern Vocational Education System (2014-2020). Beijing: Ministry of Education.
  • Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (2015). Law on Higher Education of People’s Republic of China. 29 Aug. 1998 adopted, 27 Dec. 2015 amended. Beijing: Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.
  • State Council (2002). Decision of the State Council on Vigorously Promoting Vocational Education Reform and Development. Beijing: State Council.
  • State Council (2005). Decision of the State Council on Vigorously Developing the Vocational Education. Beijing: State Council.
  • State Council (2014). Decision of the State Council on Accelerating the Development of Modern Vocational Education. Beijing: State Council.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. People’s Republic of China. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China

In Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China, Hong Kong, the Vocational Training Council (VTC) is the main TVET policy-making and development institution. It has drawn the third 8-year Strategic Plan (2015/16-2022/23) that articulates core strategies in shaping and steering the growth of TVET. This Plan points out the following strategic priorities for TVET:

  • Promotion of the value of vocational and professional education and training to the community at large;
  • Formulating a master plan for the development of VTC’s campuses and facilities;
  • Enhancing articulation opportunities for vocational and professional education and training students, with a view to providing seamless progression pathways from secondary to higher education level;
  • Introduction of a new model of apprenticeship training (Earn and Learn Pilot Scheme) to attract young people to join industries with a keen demand of labour;
  • Strengthening the recognition of vocational and professional education and training qualifications for employment and professional practices; and
Bringing closer alignment of vocational and professional education and training services to the industries.

TVET legislation

The Vocational Training Council Ordinance is the main TVET-related legislative document that provides for the establishment, functions and management of a Vocational Training Council (VTC). It contains regulations for the operating of all the institutions under the VTC. VTC Ordinance is amended in 2005.

The Ordinance assigns the Council to keep under review:

  • the needs of industry for trained manpower;
  • the availability of training manpower to meet the needs of industry;
  • the facilities available to train the manpower needed by industry;
  • the provision by employers of industrial training and apprenticeship; and
  • the adequacy of industrial training provided by employers for trainees and apprentices and the measures to be taken to promote and improve such training.
Sources:

  • Education Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2012). Vocational Education. Hong Kong: Government of the Hong Kong. Accessed: 16 September 2013.
Vocational Training Council (2016). Strategic Plan. Accessed: 21 January 2016.

  • Vocational Training Council (2008). Second 8-year Strategic Plan (2009/10 to 2016/17). Hong Kong: VTC. Accessed: 16 September 2013.


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    2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. People’s Republic of China. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

Formal TVET system

According to the Vocational Education Law of the People’s Republic of China (adopted in 1996), vocational training comprises: pre-service training, training to facilitate change of occupations, apprentice training, on-the-job training, job-transfer training, and other categories of vocational training. Vocational training is provided by vocational training institutions and/or vocational schools. Other schools or institutions of education may, depending on their own capabilities, provide various forms of vocational training to meet social needs.

Compulsory education in China lasts for 9 years and covers primary and junior secondary education levels. At this stage, TVET education is offered in vocational junior secondary schools. Those institutions organise courses of 3 to 4 years that mainly provide workers, peasants and employees with basic professional knowledge and certain professional skills. Vocational junior secondary schools are normally located in rural areas where the economy is less developed.

At upper-secondary level, TVET is provided by secondary vocational schools which consist of secondary specialised schools, schools for skilled workers and vocational high schools. Graduates of vocational junior secondary schools may enrol into secondary vocational schools, where the programme usually lasts for 3 years. The most popular courses at secondary level are manufacturing, information technology, retail and hospitality, and civil engineering.

Students successfully completing secondary vocational education may proceed to post-secondary vocational institutions where the duration of programmes is 2 to 3 years. Post-secondary TVET institutions are mainly:

  • Higher vocational technology institutions and higher technology specialised schools;
  • Five-year higher vocational programmes provided in general secondary specialised schools;
  • Short-term vocational colleges with the features of being vocational, local, and practical;
  • Higher vocational education provided in certain general higher education institutes and adult higher education institutes;
  • Reformed general specialised education schools which emphasise on higher vocational technology talents.
Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Non-state vocational education providers are very present in China. They mainly offer short-term certificate courses and have a degree of autonomy in decision-making, therefore being more adaptable to the needs of the changing market. Non-state TVET providers can be divided into two groups:

  • not-for-profit: such as enterprises and sectoral, social and professional associations, trade unions and different NGOs; and
  • commercial: mainly involved in secondary level, short-term certificate courses. These organisations need to be registered with the taxation office and the civil affairs department and have to obtain license from the education department.
As stated in the Vocational Education Law of the People’s Republic of China an enterprise shall, in light of its actual conditions, provide systematic vocational education and training for its own employees and for persons to be employed. An enterprise may establish vocational school(s) or vocational training institution(s) either by itself or in collaboration with other enterprise(s), and it may also entrust existing schools or vocational training institutions to provide vocational education for its own employees or for persons to be employed.

Sources:

  • Hao, Y (2010). China’s vocational education and training: the next key target of education promotion. Singapore: National University of Singapore.
  • Ministry of Education (1996). Vocational Education Law of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing: Ministry of Education.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. People’s Republic of China. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from Education Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2012). Vocational Education. Hong Kong: The Government of the Hong Kong.

Formal TVET system

TVET in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China is offered at post-secondary level and is provided by the following institutions, all of which are established under the authority of the Vocational Training Council (VTC):

  • Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (IVE);
  • Hong Kong Design Institute (HKDI);
  • Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong (Thei);
  • Shine Skills Centre (Shine);
  • Pro-Act by VCT (ProAct);
  • International Culinary Institute (ICI);
  • Integrated Vocational Development Centre (IVDC);
  • Youth College (YC);
  • Hotel and Tourism Institute (HTI);
  • Hospitality Industry Training & Development Centre (HITDC);
  • Chinese Cuisine Training Institute (CCTI);
  • Maritime Services Training Institute (MSTI); and
  • Institute of Professional Education and Knowledge (PEAK).
The Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (IVE) offers courses in the following nine disciplines: applied science, business administration, child education and community services, construction, design, printing, textiles and clothing, electrical and electronic engineering, hotel, service and tourism studies, information technology and mechanical, manufacturing and industrial engineering.

The Hong Kong Design Institute (HKID) was established in 2006 with the aim to bring together design-related courses from IVE (Sha Tin Campus), IVE (Kwai Chubg Campus), IVE (Kwun Tong Campus) and IVE (Tsing Yi Campus). It offers contemporary design courses from foundation to higher diploma levels.

The School of Business and Information Systems (SBI) has started to operate in 2001. It runs Higher Diploma programmes for self-funded students. Since the academic year 2004-2005, the SBI has also been offering programmes under the framework of Project Yi Jin (PYJ) launched by the Government. The project targets secondary school leavers (in particular from grade 5) and adult learners (21-year old or older). The project aims to:

  • provide an alternate pathway for secondary school leavers and adult learners to pursue continuing education;
  • help build a firm foundation of knowledge and skills for work and further study in students by providing training in languages and application of Information Technology;
  • foster the concept of lifelong learning; and
  • enhance the quality and the competitiveness of the human resource.
The Youth College (YC) was established in 2004. It aims to provide progression pathways for secondary school leavers (in particular from grade 3 to 5) and help them acquire knowledge and skills necessary for further studies or employment.

In addition the Vocational Training Council (VTC) has training and development centres that offer basic skills training programmes and upgrading training courses in: automobile, electrical, electronic, gas, jewellery, machine shop and metal working, maritime services, plastics and tooling technologies, printing, textile and welding industries. The range of the level of courses varies from operative to technologist.

Sources:

  • Education Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2012). Vocational Education. Hong Kong: The Government of the Hong Kong. Accessed: 16 September 2013.


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    3. Governance and financing

Governance

The main responsibility for TVET in China is divided between two authorities: the Ministry of Education (MoE) and the Ministry of Human Resources and and Social Security (MOHRSS). The MoE is engaged in vocational and technical education whereas the MOHRSS pays more attention to skills training.

Within the MoE, the Department of Vocational and Adult Education and the Department of Higher Education are in charge of TVET, whereas the MOHRSS has a Department of Occupational Capacity Building that is responsible for the administration of TVET programmes. The same department is also responsible for formulating occupational skills standards, assessing skills qualifications and issuing occupational/professional licenses.

At the local level, the respective education departments and departments of human resources and social securities are responsible for the daily routines of TVET administration, including budget allocation and personnel management of state-run TVET institutions.

In order to improve communication between MoE, MOHRSS and other Ministries involved in TVET provision, a temporary measure was undertaken in 2004 in the form of an inter-ministerial liaison meeting mechanism, set up to coordinate activities of the MoE, the National Development Reform Commission, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Labor and Social Securities, the Ministry of Personnel, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Poverty Alleviation Office.

Central Institute for Vocational and Technical Education (CIVTE) is a national research institute for TVET within the Ministry of Education. It is established in 1990, since then it provides:

  • policy advice to government;
  • professional consulting service for vocational education institutions;
  • coordination services for vocational education research; and
  • a platform service for international cooperation and exchange.
The China Society of Vocational Education and Training was established in 1990 with a mandate to develop and maintain cooperation among different TVET institutions in China and academic organisations at national level.

Financing

The Government plays a leading role in TVET funding and provides tuition allowances for students. In 2009, the allowance was extended from a small number of poor students to those of secondary TVET schools. For example, the tuition for secondary vocational education is exempted for the students studying in agriculture and the students from poor families.

State TVET institutions are financed through the Government budget, whereas non-state TVET providers are financially independent. Compulsory education is totally guaranteed by the governmental finance which is shared by the national and local governments. Non-compulsory education is primarily invested by the government, reasonably shared by the educated, and channelled from other various sources. Secondary vocational education may raise finances from the government, relevant sectors, enterprises, and the civil society. Higher education finance is primarily invested by the host institutions and reasonably shared by the educated, and schools may establish funds to receive donation from the society.

According to the Vocational Education Law of the People’s Republic of China, an enterprise shall bear the expenses for the vocational education of its own employees and of the persons it plans to employ, and the specific measures shall be formulated according to law by the relevant departments under the State Council in collaboration with the finance department under the State Council or by the people’s governments of a province, autonomous region or municipality directly under the State Council.

TVET Institutions are allowed to apply fees to students receiving secondary or postsecondary education or training. The tuition fees should however be reduced for students with financial difficulties or students with disabilities. Those students may also be exempt from paying the tuition. The measures for charging tuition fees shall be formulated by the people’s government of a province, autonomous region or municipality directly under the Central Government.

The State also encourages enterprises, institutions, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other public organisations or individual citizens to establish funds or scholarships to support TVET provision.

All the earnings accumulated by TVET institutions are mainly used for TVET development.

Sources:

  • Hao, Y (2010). China’s Vocational Education and Training: the Next Key Target of Education Promotion. Singapore: National University of Singapore.
  • Ministry of Education (1996). Vocational Education Law of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing: Ministry of Education.
  • Ministry of Education (2014). Planning for Building Modern Vocational Education System (2014-2020). Beijing: Ministry of Education.
  • Ministry of Finance (2009). Opinion on Exempting Tuition for Students from Rural Families with Economic Difficulties and Students in Agricultural Studies in the Secondary Vocational Schools. Beijing: Ministry of Finance.
  • Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (2015). Law on Higher Education of People’s Republic of China. 29 Aug. 1998 adopted, 27 Dec. 2015 amended. Beijing: Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.
Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China

Governance

The Vocational Training Council (VTC) was set up in 1982 with the mandate to provide and promote a cost-effective and comprehensive system of TVET to meet the needs of the economy of Hong Kong. VTC is a statutory body that advises government on the measure to assure a comprehensive TVET system.

The Council itself has 18 non-government members including representatives of the education, industry, commerce, service and labour sectors and 3 government officials: the Commissioner for labour, the Directorate-General of Trade and Industry and the Deputy Secretary for Education.

The VTC also has an Executive Director who sits on the council as ex-officio member. The work of the Council is supported by 5 functional committees, 21 training boards and 5 general committees.

The purpose of the training boards is to advise on the manpower and training needs of various industries or commercial sectors and recommend on the best approaches to meet these needs. General committees are responsible for specific training areas that can be applied to more than one sector of the economy. These areas are: apprenticeship and trade testing, information technology training and development, management and supervisory training, technologist training, and vocational training for people with disabilities.

Financing

In accordance with the Vocational Training Council Ordinance, funds and property of the VTC consist of:

  • all moneys appropriated by the Legislative Council for the purposes of the Council;
  • all moneys lawfully received by the Council by way of grants, loans, funds, donations, fees, rent or interest;
  • all moneys derived from the sale of any property held by or on behalf of the Council; and
  • all property and assets lawfully acquired by the Council.
Tuition fees are applied by TVET institutions. However, students may apply to various fees-relieve schemes (such as non-means tested loan scheme, extended non-means- tested loan scheme, financial assistance scheme for post-secondary students, etc.). Programmes themselves can be either self-funded or subsided by Hong Kong.

Sources:

  • Education Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2012). Vocational Education. Hong Kong: The Government of the Hong Kong. Accessed: 16 September 2013.
  • Vocational Training Council (2013). Programme Information and Application. Hong Kong: VTC. Accessed: 16 September 2013.


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    4. TVET teachers and trainers

TVET institutions can autonomously manage the selection of teaching staff in accordance with annual quotas on the number of teachers to be employed that is set by the State. A system of professional titles for teachers is broadly implemented in China:

  • Teacher positions in specialised schools: senior lecturer, lecturer, assistant lecturer, teacher;
  • Teacher positions for cultural and technical theory at skilled workers schools: senior lecturer, lecturer, assistant lecturer, teacher; and
  • Practice-guiding teachers in skilled workers’ schools and vocational secondary schools: senior practice-guiding teacher, first-rank practice guiding teacher, second- and third-rank practice-guiding teacher.
The qualification system for teachers is legally formulated. The law describes the titles, types, the scope of application of teacher’s qualifications, the requirements for different kinds of teachers, the examinations for each teacher qualification, the confirmation of the teachers’ qualification, and their legal abilities.

The requirements to acquire a teacher certificate in TVET with respect to the type of teacher are:

  • Teachers of junior middle schools/teachers of general academic and specialised courses in primary vocational schools: to be graduate from 2- to 3-year specialised higher normal school or other colleges;
  • Teachers in senior middle schools/teachers of general academic and specialised courses in senior vocational schools, technical schools or vocational high schools: to be graduate from normal college, other universities or 4-year college; and
  • Teachers of adult education in accordance with different levels and types of adult education: to be graduate from institutions of higher learning or secondary schools.
Teacher training is the responsibility of different administrative organs. Training institutions collaborate with the organs responsible for education research in organising training activities systematically, providing professional guidance and management for training activities and conducting training research. Schools where teachers work are the prime places for teacher training. They should provide time for training and necessary material conditions for a systematic, permanent and effective training.

The Planning for Building Modern Vocational Education (2014-2020) sets out that, based on the characteristic of vocational education, the qualification standards and professional titles of TVET teachers are to be improved. The quota for new teachers should be used to bring in teachers with professional practical experiences, so that by 2020 the number of teachers with practical professional experiences would account for more than 60% among all the full-time or part-time TVET teachers. TVET institutions are encouraged to employ management staff in enterprises, engineering technical persons, and skilful craftsmen. Training centres for TVET teachers are to be built with support from high-level schools and large to medium-sized enterprises, where the training should be institution-oriented and based on the ‘degree diploma + enterprise training’ modality. Regular practical training mechanism is to be established so that new teachers must firstly go through practical training and all teachers must regularly get practical training. The Administrative Rule on Enterprise Based Practical Training for Vocational School Teacher (trial) is in the phase of public consultation since October 2015, in which it is legally required that TVET teachers who teach specialised courses shall accumulate no less than 6 months practical experiences every 5 years according to their specialisations.

Sources:

  • Announcement for Public Consultation of Administrative Rule on Enterprise Based Practical Training for Vocational School Teacher (trial). Ministry of Education: People’s Republic of China. 10 Oct. 2015.
  • OECD (2010). Learning for Jobs. OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training. Options for China. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. People’s Republic of China. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China

Those who are interested in becoming a teacher must be registered under the Education Ordinance as either a registered teacher or a permitted teacher. The former are teachers in possession of the approved teacher qualifications laid down in the Education Ordinance, whereas the latter possess only academic qualifications.

Hong Kong, SAR of China is planning in its long-term policy to require all new teachers to obtain professional training in addition to a degree.

The main teacher training institution in Hong Kong is the Hong Kong Institute of Education (HKIEd). It aims to improve the quality of teacher education. It offers a wide range of programmes including professional and vocational education.

Other institutions offering teacher education are: the Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU), the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) and the University of Hong Kong (UHK). All of them provide pre- and in-service teacher training.

The Advisory Committee on Teacher Education and Qualifications (ACTEQ) recommends that:

  • All teachers, irrespective of their rank and capacity, should engage in Continuing Professional Development (CPD) activities of not less than 150 hours in a three-year cycle; and
  • Time spent on the 3 school-organised staff development days will be fully recognised and counted towards the CPD requirement.
The Hong Kong Teachers’ Centre was established in 1989 with the aim to promote continuous professional development among teachers. The centre gives teachers the opportunity to exchange best-practices, participate in lectures, seminars and courses, discover new teaching methods and upgrade their knowledge in education issues.

Sources:

  • Education Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2003). Towards a Learning Profession: The Teacher Competencies Framework and the Continuing Professional Development of Teachers. Hong Kong: Advisory Committee on Teacher Education and Qualifications (ACTEQ). Accessed: 19 June 2013.
  • Education Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2013). Teacher Training and Qualifications. Accessed: 16 September 2013.
  • Webpage of the Hong Kong Institute of Education. Accessed: 16 September 2013.
  • Webpage of the Hong Kong Teachers’ Centre. Accessed: 16 September 2013.


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    5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

The Vocational Qualification Certificate System was introduced in China in 1993. The certificates are based on skill units required by specific occupations. The assignment of qualifications takes the form of a national examination that consists of two parts: knowledge examination and operational skills assessment. Upon successful passing of the examination, a national vocational certificate is issued in accordance with the vocational skill standards or qualification requirements established by the Government. The examination is conducted by assessment agencies approved by the Government.

Vocational Qualifications Certificates have five levels:

  • Primary worker certificate (National Vocational Qualifications Level 5);
  • Intermediate worker certificate (National Vocational Qualifications Level 4);
  • Advanced worker certificate (National Vocational Qualifications Level 3);
  • Technician certificate (National Vocational Qualifications Level 2); and
  • Senior technician certificate (National Vocational Qualifications Level 1).
A Certificate is a proof that the holder has the knowledge and skills essential for the practice of the occupation in question and qualifies the holder to set up a business in China.

Sources:

  • Su, Z and Zeng, X (2009). China’s National Vocational Qualification Certificates and Their Impact on Technical Workers’ Skill Level, Job Performance and Earnings: Evidence from Six Enterprises in the Manufacturing Industry. Beijing: Renmin University of China.
  • National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (2011). Vocational Education and Training Regulated Professions and Vocational Qualification. Accessed: 16 September 2013.
Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China

The Qualifications Framework (QF) was introduced by the Education Bureau (EDU) of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and is a cross-sectoral hierarchy covering qualifications in the academic, vocational and continuing education sectors. QF consists of 7 levels and is supported by an associated quality assurance mechanism.

The qualification register (QR) is a centralised on-line database for reference by general public contains all quality-assured qualifications.

A mechanism for Recognition of Prior Learning was established under QF. Its purpose is to enable practitioners of different backgrounds to obtain formal recognition of any previously acquired knowledge, skills and experience. Training is adjusted to the level of practitioner based on the qualifications he/she already has in order to minimise the need to repeat training in the same skills. Employers may also be involved in formulating training programmes for their employees in accordance with organisational needs.

The Hong Kong Council for Accreditation of Academic and Vocational Qualifications (HKCAAVQ) is a statutory body established in 2007 and replaced the Hong Kong Council for Academic Accreditation (HKCAA). The HKCAAVQ is appointed as the Accreditation Authority and Qualifications Recognition (QR) Authority under the QF by the Secretary of Education. Other functions of HKCAAVQ are connected with academic and vocational accreditation, education and training and quality assurance.

Sources:

  • Education Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2012). Vocational Education. Hong Kong: Government of the Hong Kong. Accessed: 16 September 2013.
  • Webpage of the Hong Kong Council for Accreditation of Academic and Vocational Qualifications (HKCAAVQ). Accessed: 16 September 2013.


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    6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

  • The State Council has introduced a measure aimed at creating more jobs in the infrastructure sector and public services by launching massive TVET sessions in rural areas
  • The National Development and Reform Commission, MOHRSS and the Ministry of Finance are jointly promoting TVET among laid-off employees. Rural participants can apply for special funding to cover tuition fees
  • The Asian Development Bank has initiated a project called “Technical and Vocational Education and Training Demonstration”. It aims to improve the quality and relevance of TVET in the Hunan province by improving TVET institutional capacity, training of instructors and curriculum development. It is an ongoing project and its concept was finalised in 2011.
  • The Chinese Ministry of Finance is funding a project called “Vocational Education Leadership Training Programme”. It is a five-year programme (2008-2013) designed by the Ministry of Education to support the National Model Higher Vocational College Construction Project through enhancing the leadership of higher vocational colleges in China. It aims to do so by providing opportunities for leaders to absorb new concepts and witness diverse practices in TVET from other countries. 125 leaders have been sent to the US, Germany and Australia under the framework of this project.
  • Since 2008, a China-Australia Vocational Education Symposium takes place every year. The purpose of the symposium is to promote exchange and cooperation in the vocational education sector. Topics such as mutual accreditation, teaching quality assurance, faculty exchanges and student mobility are discussed by presidents and middle managers of vocational schools from Australia and China.
  • In 2013, the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China decided to accelerate the construction of modern vocational education system, deepen the integration between industry and education, and strengthen cooperation between enterprises and schools, in order to train high-quality labour force and skilled talents. In 2014, the State Council and relevant ministries respectively issued the Decision on Accelerating the Development of Modern Vocational Education and the Planning for Building Modern Vocational Education System (2014-2020), which set forth the strategies of building the framework and overall structure for a demand-based and integrated vocational education system.
  • Since 2014, the State Council and relevant governmental agencies have repealed a large number of national and local employment access qualification requirements, and repealed the Administrative Rule for Employment of Technical Workers which provides 90 employment access qualifications. The government will establish a national qualification inventory management system, and set up employment access qualification requirements only for the occupations in relation to public security, human health, or life and property safety according to legal procedures.
Challenges:

The OECD (2010) identified the following challenges currently facing TVET system:

  • insufficient cooperation between TVET institutions and employers who can provide workplace training that is compulsory for each student during the upper-secondary programme;
  • lack of financial resources; each state vocational institution depends on the financial resources of the province, county or district that it is a part of. Given the uneven economic development of China’s regions, schools in rural areas and poorer provinces are under-resourced and facing slower growth; and
  • insufficient planning to meet the labour-market needs. Coordination between labour supply and demand sides is poor.
Sources:

  • Announcement for Public Consultation of Administrative Rule on Enterprise Based Practical Training for Vocational School Teacher (trial). Ministry of Education: People’s Republic of China. 10 October 2015.
  • Asian Development Bank (2013). Technical and Vocational Education and Training Demonstration Project. Mandaluyong: Asian Development Bank. Accessed: 16 September 2013.
  • Decision on Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening Reforms. The Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee. 12 November 2013.
  • Hao, Y (2010). China’s vocational education and training: the next key target of education promotion. Singapore: National University of Singapore.
  • Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (2016). MHRSS News. Accessed: 25 January 2016.
  • Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (2010). Learning for Jobs. OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training. Options for China. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.


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    7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

1 307.59
1 314.58
1 321.48
1 328.28
1 334.91
1 341.34
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+0.52 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
629.31 678.29
female male  
632.53 682.06
female male  
635.72 685.76
female male  
638.88 689.40
female male  
641.98 692.93
female male  
644.99 696.34
female male  

48.13 %

48.12 %

48.11 %

48.1 %

48.09 %

48.09 %





GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012


2 069

2 651

3 414

3 749

4 433

5 447

6 091




Employment (Million)


total female male
Population

1 341.34

644.99 696.34
.
Labour Force
15.5%
Labour Force Rate

15.5%

0%

0%

Labour Force

207.50

0.00 (0%) 0.00 (0%)
Unemployment Rate

4%

0%

0%

.
Unemployment
4%
Unemployed

8.30

0.00 (0%) 0.00 (0%)





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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions

References

  • Announcement for Public Consultation of Administrative Rule on Enterprise Based Practical Training for Vocational School Teacher (trial). Ministry of Education: People’s Republic of China. 10 October 2015.
  • Asian Development Bank (2013). Technical and Vocational Education and Training Demonstration Project. Mandaluyong: Asian Development Bank. Accessed: 16 September 2013.
  • Education Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2012). Vocational Education. Hong Kong: The Government of the Hong Kong. Accessed: 16 September 2013.
  • Education Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2003). Towards a Learning Profession: The Teacher Competencies Framework and the Continuing Professional Development of Teachers. Hong Kong: Advisory Committee on Teacher Education and Qualifications (ACTEQ). Accessed: 19 June 2013.
  • Education Bureau of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (2013). Teacher Training and Qualifications. Accessed: 16 September 2013.
  • Hao, Y (2010). China’s vocational education and training: the next key target of education promotion. Singapore: National University of Singapore.
  • Decision on Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening Reforms. The Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee. 12 November 2013.
  • Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (2016). MHRSS News. Accessed: 25 January 2016.
  • Ministry of Education (1996). Vocational Education Law of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing: Ministry of Education.
  • Ministry of Education (2014). Planning for Building Modern Vocational Education System (2014-2020). Beijing: Ministry of Education.
  • Ministry of Finance (2009). Opinion on Exempting Tuition for Students from Rural Families with Economic Difficulties and Students in Agricultural Studies in the Secondary Vocational Schools. Beijing: Ministry of Finance.
  • National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (2011). Vocational Education and Training Regulated Professions and Vocational Qualification. Accessed: 16 September 2013.
  • OECD (2010). Learning for Jobs. OECD Reviews of Vocational Education and Training. Options for China. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development.
  • Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (2015). Law on Higher Education of People’s Republic of China. 29 Aug. 1998 adopted, 27 Dec. 2015 amended. Beijing: Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.
  • State Council (2002). Decision of the State Council on Vigorously Promoting Vocational Education Reform and Development. Beijing: State Council.
  • State Council (2005). Decision of the State Council on Vigorously Developing the Vocational Education. Beijing: State Council.
  • State Council (2014). Decision of the State Council on Accelerating the Development of Modern Vocational Education. Beijing: State Council.
  • Su, Z and Zeng, X (2009). China’s National Vocational Qualification Certificates and Their Impact on Technical Workers’ Skill Level, Job Performance and Earnings: Evidence from Six Enterprises in the Manufacturing Industry. Beijing: Renmin University of China.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education, VII Ed. 2010/11. People’s Republic of China. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
  • Vocational Training Council (2008). Second 8-year Strategic Plan (2009/10 to 2016/17). Hong Kong: VTC. Accessed: 16 September 2013.
  • Vocational Training Council (2013). Programme Information and Application. Hong Kong: VTC. Accessed: 16 September 2013.
  • Vocational Training Council (2016). Strategic Plan. Accessed: 21 January 2016.
Webpage of China Culture on Vocational Education. Accessed: 25 January 2016.

Webpage of the Hong Kong Teachers’ Centre. Accessed: 16 September 2013.

Further Reading

Abbreviations

  • ACTEQ - Advisory Committee on Teacher Education and Qualifications
  • CCTI - Chinese Cuisine Training Institute
  • CIVTE - Central Institute for Vocational and Technical Education
  • CPD - Continuing Professional Development
  • CTVET - Continuing Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • CUHK - Chinese University of Hong Kong
  • EDU - Education Bureau
  • HITDC - Hospitality Industry Training & Development Centre
  • HKBU - Hong Kong Baptist University
  • HKCAA - Hong Kong Council for Academic Accreditation
  • HKCAAVQ - Hong Kong Council for Accreditation of Academic and Vocational Qualifications
  • HKDI - Hong Kong Design Institute
  • HKIEd - Hong Kong Institute of Education
  • ITVET - Initial Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • IVE - Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education
  • MoE - Ministry of Education
  • MOHRSS - Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security
  • MSTI - Maritime Services Training Institute
  • NGOs - Non-Governmental Organisations
  • PEAK - The Institute of Professional Education and Knowledge
  • PYJ - Project Yi Jin
  • QF - Qualifications Framework
  • QR - Qualification register
  • SBI - School of Business and Information Systems
  • TVET - Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • UHK - University of Hong Kong
  • VTC - Vocational Training Council
  • YC - Youth College




    Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
    Publication Date: 2013-09-20
    Validated by: Professor LIU Yufeng;
    Director & Research Professor;
    International Cooperation and comparative education research;
    Central Institute for Vocational & Technical Education;
    MOE, P. R. China



page date 2014-12-19

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