World TVET Database - Country Profiles

Ghana

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Ghana
published: 2016-02-03

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET Mission

Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in Ghana aims to contribute to the development of a productive workforce by linking the education system to the needs of the economy. It equips youth with the skills necessary to enhance their employability and livelihoods and provides equitable access to competency-based training.

TVET Strategy

TVET developments in Ghana are influenced by increasing demands for post-basic education and training opportunities. TVET related policy directives aim to enhance the TVET system in Ghana by promoting, among others:

  • Industry led and demand driven Competency-based training (CBT). CBT programmes are outcome-based and aim to promote equitable access, opportunities and career pathways for students and employees to develop their vocational, technical and generic skills; and
  • Workplace Experience Learning (WEL) ensures that the theoretical and practical aspects of the CBT model are integrated and adequately prepares students for the world of work. Policies promoting WEL and increased industry participation in the TVET system aim to enable students to relate theory to practice by simulating real world scenarios.
TVET legislation

  • The Council for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (COTVET) Act 718 (2006) establishes the COTVET. The Act mandates the COTVET to coordinate and oversee TVET in Ghana across all sectors.
  • The National Accreditation Board Act 744 (2007) establishes the National Accreditation Board and mandates it to accredit public and private tertiary-level institutions with regard to the contents and standards of their programmes.
  • The Polytechnic Act 745 (2007) mandates Polytechnics to provide tertiary education in the fields of manufacturing, commerce, science, technology, and to provide opportunities for skills development, applied research and the publication of research findings.
  • The National Board for Professional and Technician Examination Act 492 (1994) administers examination schemes for professional bodies and non-university institutions at the tertiary level.
  • The COTVET Legislative Instrument LI 2195 (2012) regulates the TVET system and ensures that it is linked to the National Qualifications Framework (NQF).
Sources:


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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC.

Upon completing six years of primary education, students proceed to three years of junior high school which completes 11 years of basic education. At the upper secondary level, students enrol in general or technical education programmes.

Formal TVET system

TVET is provided at the upper secondary level. Upon basic education, students can choose between attending senior high schools, secondary technical schools or technical institutes. Access to these programmes is based on the students’ performances at in junior high schools.

Post-secondary TVET

TVET at the post-secondary education level is provided at universities and polytechnics. Only students who have graduated from technical schools can proceed to universities and polytechnics. Those graduating from technical institutes can only progress to polytechnics or apprenticeships.

In order to be admitted into a TVET programme in a polytechnic, students are required to have completed a pre-technical/craft course followed by general technical/craft course (both lasting for two years) in a technical institute.

Students graduating from a polytechnic and receiving a Higher National Diploma may enter university and get a degree after a study course of two to three years.

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Non-formal training is provided by community organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) and includes short courses and seminars that will not normally lead to a qualification. Young people who did not have an opportunity to complete secondary education can choose from a range of apprenticeships and other training programmes.

Informal TVET is offered mostly through apprenticeships with Master Craftsmen programmes. The duration of the apprenticeships can range between two to three and a half years. Informal apprenticeships normally do not lead to formal certification or qualifications.

Sources:


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3. Governance and financing

Governance

The TVET system in Ghana is governed by the Ministry of Education (MoE). Other ministries involved in the provision of TVET include the: (1) Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations; (2) Ministry of Youth and Sports; (3) Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development; and the (4) Ministry of Health and Environment. Within the MoE, the Ghana Education Service (GES) is responsible for implementing pre-tertiary education policies formulated by the Ministry.

Other actors involved in the governance of TVET include:

  • The Council for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (COTVET) - under the Ministry of Education – coordinates and oversees TVET developments in Ghana. The Board is supported by five Technical Standing Committees, namely: the National TVET Qualifications Committee (NTVETQC); the Industrial Training Advisory Committee; the Training Quality Assurance Committee (TQAC); the National Apprenticeship Committee; and the Skills Development Fund Committee. The Committees function as national bodies and are set up in collaboration with stakeholders.
  • The National Vocational Training Institute (NVTI) – under the Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations – provides non-formal and informal sector apprenticeships. The NVTI operates 38 vocational centres all over the country that provide training opportunities in 28 skill areas.
Financing

The government is responsible for financing TVET in Ghana and all the ministries that are involved in TVET receive funding for their activities. The funds entail budgetary allocations as well as contributions from development partners.

TVET is also financed by civil society and faith based institutions.

Sources:


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4. TVET teachers and trainers

TVET teachers are trained in colleges. For example, the College of Technology Education in Kumasi (COLTEK) – under the University College of Education in Winneba – offers degrees and certificate programmes. Specifically, the Faculty of Technical Education offers programmes in construction and wood technologies, mechanics, automotive and electrical technologies, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The Faculty of Vocational Education offers programmes in fashion design and textiles and hospitality and tourism.

Sources:


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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Technical school 3 years Senior High School Leaving Certificate
Technical institute varies Awards from City & Guilds, the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce or the West African Examinations Council
Post-secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Polytechnic 3 years (with 18 month programme) 2/3 years Higher National Diploma (Bachelor of Technology)Advanced Technician; Craft Certificate
Advanced Technician and Craft 2-3 years Advanced Technician and Craft Certificate
National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

The National TVET qualifications Framework (NTVETQF) aims to improve and increase the different pathways for TVET graduates. The NTVETQF is administered by the Council for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (COTVET).

The NTVETQF has eight levels, as follows:

Quality Assurance

The COTVET is responsible for the quality of TVET programmes in Ghana and ensures this by working with the Training Quality Assurance Committee (TQAC) which is comprised of key stakeholders.

Sources:



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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

TVET reforms and projects in Ghana are guided by a number of documents, including the:

  • Ghana Skills and Technology Development Project;
  • Support to Private Sector Development;
  • Development of Skills and Industry Project;
  • Technical and Vocational Training Voucher Program;
  • National Apprenticeship Program; and
  • Ghana Skills Development Initiative (a GIZ Consultants’ – COTVET cooperation).
Some of the activities undertaken include the development of 23 competency-based training (CBT) operational manuals, the training of 200 TVET instructors, development of the Workplace Experience Learning (WEL) related policy directives and the piloting of a student entrepreneurship business model programme.

Challenges

The development of TVET in Ghana faces a number of challenges, including to:

  • Finance the TVET sector, including the training of TVET teachers, instructors and assessors;
  • Improve the perception of TVET among students.
Sources:


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7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2005

2010

21.64
24.39
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+2.54 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
10.64 11.00
female male  
11.98 12.41
female male  

49.15 %

49.13 %



Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/the 2010 revision

GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010


495

920

1 085

1 226

1 098

1 283


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on World Bank database

Employment (Million)


total female male
Population

24.39

11.98 12.41
.
Labour Force
26.3%
Labour Force Rate

26.3%

26.4%

26.3%

Labour Force

6.42

3.16 (49.2%) 3.26 (50.8%)
Unemployment Rate

8.5%

8.8%

8.3%

.
Unemployment
8.5%
Unemployed

0.55

0.28 (50.9%) 0.27 (49.1%)


Youth Employment (Million)


total youth total female male
Population 24.39 3.48 (14.3%) 1.76 (50.5%) 1.72 (49.5%)
.
Labour Force Rate

53.8%

54.7%

52.9%

Labour Force 6.42 1.87 (29.2%) 0.96 (51.3%) 0.91 (48.7%)
Unemployment Rate

16.5%

16.6%

16.4%

.
Unemployed 0.55 0.31 (56.6%) 0.16 (51.6%) 0.15 (48.4%)
Unemployed
youth : total

56.6%

.

Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC base on ILO: Key indicators of the labour market


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions


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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

  • Gondwe, M. and J. Walenkamp (2011). Alignment of Higher Education with the Needs of the Local Labour Market: The Case of Ghana. Accessed: 22 February 2016.
  • Webpage of the Council for Technical and Vocational Education and Training. Accessed: 22 February 2016.
  • Webpage of the College of Technology Education in Kumasi. Accessed: 22 February 2016.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Ghana. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

Abbreviations

  • COTVET - Council for Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • CBT - Competency-based training
  • COLTEK - College of Technology Education in Kumasi
  • ICT - Information and Communications Technology
  • MoE - Ministry of Education
  • NGO - Non-Governmental Organization
  • NQF - National Qualifications Framework
  • NTVETNQF - National TVET qualifications Framework
  • NTVETQC - National TVET Qualifications Committee
  • NVTI - National Vocational Training Institute
  • TVET - Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • WEL - Workplace Learning Experience




Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
Publication Date: 2016-02-03
Validated by: Department of Vocational and Technical Education - University of Cape Coast (VOTEC)



page date 2014-12-19

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