TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Hungary
published: 2013-11-27

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

The TVET mission is to form skilled people with marketable knowledge, thereby boosting employment and the performance of the Hungarian economy.

The national TVET policy aims to:

  • increase the share of practical training provided at the workplace compared to school workshops;
  • restore the prestige of TVET to encourage more students and adults to choose TVET programmes; and
  • adjust TVET to labour market needs and provide for bringing TVET supply more in line with the demands of the labour market. The government therefore allows the economy, via its experts, to determine TVET planning.
The Hungarian TVET objectives are to:

  • contribute to employability and economic growth;
  • respond to broader societal challenges, in particular promoting social cohesion;
  • offer young people and adults attractive and challenging career opportunities; and
  • transform the structure and the financing system of TVET.
The Hungarian TVET priorities are:

  • the improvement of the quality and efficiency of TVET;
  • the enhancement of TVET attraction;
  • the adjustment to the labour market; and
  • the dissemination of different forms of learning.
Legislative framework

TVET in Hungary is governed by several laws amended over time and supplemented by a series of decrees and other regulations. These include:

  • The new Act of adult education and training (LXXVII 2013) focuses more on quality of adult education and training and is effective as of 1 September 2013. It contains some significant changes compared to the practice so far. The main areas affected by the changes are the following: (1) approval – accreditation; (2) data managed by the training provider; and (3) regulations of subsidized training courses. Adult training provision can be performed based on a fixed term license. Programme accreditation and institutional accreditation will be reformed and they will be expanded with further quality assurance elements (e.g.: obligatory satisfaction survey), these will be replaced by the new licensing system. The main objective of the issue of the licenses is to have an appropriate quality assurance system in each institution.
  • National Public Education Act & Vocational Education and Training Act that came into effect in December 2011. Both Acts introduced significant structural changes to school-based TVET provision. Relevant legal provisions came into force in three major waves; on the 1 September 2012, on 1 of January 2013 and on 1 September 2013.
  • The strategic document entitled “Concept for reforming the VET system and harmonising it with the economic needs” was adopted by the Hungarian Government in May 2011. This strategic document restructures the TVET system to make it more responsive to the needs of the economy. It rests on the principles of the framework agreement concluded in November 2010 between the Government and the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (MKIK).
  • The Act CCIV of 2011 regulates national higher education. It aims to raise the standard of higher education, define the criteria system required for passing on and acquiring competitive knowledge and to guarantee the operation of the higher education system.
  • The Vocational Contribution Act (LXXXVI 2003) stipulates the conditions of the enterprise training levy or TVET tax and reinforces the development of training in the context of national TVET for a longer period, but recently, the prevailing is the Act on Vocational Contribution and Support of Development of Training (CLV 2011) that brought significant changes in regulation.
  • The VET Act (LXXVI 1993) covers initial and continuing TVET within and outside the formal education system. It does not cover ISCED 5A and 6, which are higher education programmes regulated by the Act of National Higher Education, CCIV of 2011. This Act defines: (1) training providers of TVET; (2) content requirements of the National Qualifications Register (OKJ) (Országos Képzési Jegyzék); (3) The administrative structure of TVET; (4) Content requirements of the vocational examinations; and (5) Financing of TVET. The prevailing VET Act is that of CLXXXVII of 2011 fully entering into force on 1 September 2013.
Source:

CEDEFOP ReferNet (2012). Hungary VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: CEDEFOP

Farkas, P (2013). Vocational Education and Training in Hungary. Budapest: National Labour Office

The National Assembly of Hungary (2011). Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education. Budapest: The National Assembly of Hungary http://www.oktatas.hu/pub_bin/dload/nyelvvizsga_honositas/elismertetes_honositas/Act_on_NatHE2011.pdf last access on 19 November 2013


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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

The Education and Training system 2013

Scheme extracted from CEDEFOP report. Hungary. VET in Europe – Country Report 2012


Upon completion of primary and lower secondary education, learners can choose between two different vocational education tracks (in addition to the general academic, ‘grammar schools’ track):

  • Secondary Vocational Schools (szakközépiskola, SZKI)
  • Vocational Schools (szakiskola, SZI)
For instance, in 2011/12, around two thirds of full-time students at upper secondary level were enrolled in the TVET programmes.

Secondary Vocational Schools (SZKI)

From 2013, SZKI provide TVET parallel to general education from grade 9. This involves vocational theoretical and practical training in the common content of qualifications in a given sector. Upon completion of the first four SZKI years (years 9-12) and taking a ‘vocational secondary school leaving examination’ (szakmai érettségi), they are entitled to obtain a certificate that qualifies them to enter at least one occupation in the sector of their training. SZKI offer access to postsecondary vocational qualification or college/university.

Vocational schools (SZI)

From 2013, SZI provide three-year programmes. These programmes provide general education as well as vocational education and training from the very start. The proportion of practical training of the programme is significantly higher, while that of vocational theoretical education and particularly general education is lower. SZI also offer an educational pathway called the ‘bridge programme’ to enable low achieving students who fail to complete primary school or do very poor to continue their studies. There are two bridge programmes:

  • Bridge I. (Híd I.) is for students below the mandatory school attendance age (16) who have completed their elementary studies but due to their poor results have not gained admission to a SZI. Bridge I. assists students to acquire the fundamental skills and competences that they are lacking and are necessary for the continuation of their studies.
  • Bridge II. (Híd II.) is designed for students who have been unable to complete the 8 years of primary school by the age of 16 and need further assistance to become ready to be admitted to a vocational school. Bridge II is meant to boost students’ motivation level and develop skills necessary for training for a vocation.
SZI graduates are entitled to obtain a ‘secondary school leaving certificate’ or a ‘vocational secondary school leaving certificate’ in two years. In addition, SZI graduates who have not obtained a secondary school leaving certificate are able to pursue higher education studies in a field that matches the sector of their TVET training after 5 years of work experience and passing a master craftsman examination (mestervizsga).

Special Vocational programmes (előrehozott szakiskolai képzés)

These programmes ceases to run as of 2013. They lasted normally three years and allowed students to start vocational training right after the completion of the eighth grade of primary school (általános iskola, ISCED 1A-2A) at the age of 14, so they may obtain a vocational qualification as early as the age of 17.

Postsecondary TVET Programmes (ISCED 4 C)

The programmes last one to three years depending on the qualification to be acquired.

Higher education TVET Programmes (felsőoktatási szakképzés FSZ)

From 2013/14, FSZ programmes are exclusively provided by higher education institutions and governed by the new Higher Education Act of 2011. FSZ programmes prepare for high quality professional work and at the same time, through transferability of credits, help transition from TVET to tertiary level education. It targets generally students holding a secondary school leaving certificate (érettségi bizonyítvány, ISCED 3A).

Adult Education and Training System

Adult training (felnőttképzés) provided mainly outside the formal schooling system offers training of various types and duration that many cases do not award a state-recognised qualification. Admission criteria, duration and other characteristics of adult training provision are defined either by training providers or by legislation or the responsible specialised state agency. With a few exceptions, all OKJ qualifications can be obtained in adult training offered outside the schooling system. Several social partners engage in adult training provision and provide their own training institutions.

Source:

CEDEFOP ReferNet (2012). Hungary VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: CEDEFOP

Farkas, P (2013). Vocational Education and Training in Hungary. Budapest: National Labour Office


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3. Governance and financing

The Government issues the National Qualifications Register (OKJ) and the vocational requirement modules of the vocational qualifications recognized by the state as well as the vocational examination regulation and the general rules of the vocational control of complex vocational examinations. It defines the vocational qualifications that make the maintainer of the TVET courses eligible for budgetary contribution.

As of January 2013, the state becomes ultimately responsible for providing education and possesses the employment rights of the pedagogical staff (including the head teacher) and pays their salaries. The central government exercises its maintainer rights through the newly established Klebelsberg Institution Maintenance Centre (KKIK) (Klebelsberg Kunó Intézményfenntartó Központ). The KKIK is assigned to prepare proposals for the minister of education on county-level education plans, including the county TVET plans, advised by the minister responsible for TVET.

The Ministry for National Economy (NGM) (nemzetgazdasági minisztérium,) oversees TVET including the employment policy. The NGM regulates provision of TVET, but shares responsibility with other ministries responsible for specific vocational qualifications. NGM is responsible for defining learning outcomes and framework curricula of TVET.

In details the Minister for National Economy (NGM) has the following functions:

  • to establish and operate the National Qualifications Committee;
  • to oversee the Vocational and Adult Training Directorate of the National Labour Office;
  • to compile the national module map and provide for publication;
  • to set up the development and training committees of the capital and the counties, respectively, and provide for the conditions of their operation together with the economic chamber;
  • to commission the drawing up of the mandatory vocational training framework curricula by vocational qualification in vocational school and by sector in secondary vocational school.
The Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (MKIK) (Magyar Kereskedelmi és Iparkamara) has recently assigned with a significant role of shaping TVET policy. The MKIK is responsible for:

  • developing core curricula and examination procedures;
  • preparing for blue-collar jobs;
  • participating in the organisation of TVET examinations;
  • performing quality assurance functions.
Social partners are involved in various advisory councils, such as:

  • the National Economic and Social Council (Nemzeti Gazdasági és Társadalmi Tanács), which is a multi-sided forum for strategic TVET issues;
  • the National Vocational and Adult Education Council (Nemzeti Szakképzési és Felnőttképzési Tanács), which is a consultative-advisory body to the minister in charge, participating in the development of National Qualifications Register (OKJ) and the allocation of the National Employment Fund (NFA) (Nemzeti Foglalkoztatási Alap);
  • the National Qualification Committee (Nemzeti Képesítési Bizottság), which advise in the development of OKJ.
County-level TVET functions are assigned to the County Development and Training Committee (MFKB) (megyei fejlesztésiés képzési bizottság), which is a body created for the purpose of the development of TVET and the enforcement of the labour market needs, with consultation, commenting and proposal-making competence.

Schools are established and maintained not only by the State, but also by churches, business entities, foundations, associations. The maintainer is responsible for lawful operation of the school and approves its internal regulations and educational and pedagogical programmes, but schools enjoy autonomy in professional-pedagogical matters, supervised by the head teacher.


Financing

The primary sources of funding for operating TVET schools are:

  • the central government budget; and
  • the budget of school maintainers.
Since January 2013, the central government budget covers the labour costs of all teachers, trainers and other staff assisting pedagogical work, including those employed in non-state-maintained education institutions, in case the maintainer concludes a contract with the ministry responsible for TVET.

Practical training in an enterprise is financed by the company spending its Vocational Training Contribution (SZH) (szakképzési hozzájárulás) on related costs and also claim further expenses from the NFA training sub-fund if necessary. The system of the SZH is a TVET tax levied on enterprises amounting to 1.5% of the total labour cost. Practical training provision can also be profitable for companies.

The main funding sources of adult training are:

  • the central state budget;
  • the National Employment Fund (NFA) (Nemzeti Foglalkoztatási Alap);
  • international assistance;
  • employers’ contributions; and
  • training participants’ contributions.
Source:

CEDEFOP ReferNet (2012). Hungary VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: CEDEFOP

Farkas, P (2013). Vocational Education and Training in Hungary. Budapest: National Labour Office


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4. TVET teachers and trainers

The following table shows the qualification requirements for TVET teachers and trainers:

Qualification Criteria of obtaining qualification (pre-service training) In-service training Roles and responsibilities
Vocational teachers (szakmai tanár) MA degree and pedagogical qualification (ISCED 5A) A minimum of 120 hours at least once every seven years is mandatory (80% state supported) Teaching professional theoretical subjects
Vocational trainers (szakoktató) BA/BSc degree and pedagogical qualification (ISCED 5A) A minimum of 120 hours at least once every seven years is mandatory (80% state supported) Overseeing vocational practice conducted in school workshops
Practical Instructors (gyakorlati oktató) A vocational qualification in the specific field at least five years’ professional experience Overseeing practical training conducted at an enterprise
Table extracted from CEDEFOP publication: Hungary VET in Europe – Country report 2012


From the school year 2012/2013:

  • the training of TVET teachers is carried out in both structures (two-tier BA/MA and one-tier long programme);
  • teaching practice is extended to include one whole year at an external training site; and
  • the assessment and quality development of teachers’ work is delegated to external school inspectors.
Source:

CEDEFOP ReferNet (2012). Hungary VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: CEDEFOP

Farkas, P (2013). Vocational Education and Training in Hungary. Budapest: National Labour Office


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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

The National Qualifications Register (OKJ) (Országos Képzési Jegyzék) is the list of all state-recognised vocational qualifications (and basic data about them) that can be obtained in TVET provided either within or outside the school system. It also specifies the ISCED levels of these qualifications.

In both SZI and SZKI schools, OKJ qualifications are awarded upon passing the vocational examination (szakmai vizsga) at the end of the TVET programme.

The National Qualifications Register (OKJ) was issued in 2006 and a new design was launched in 2012. It kept several features of the OKJ of 2006 such as the modular principle and the competence-based approach with a more simple design. The number of qualifications has been decreased by approximately half, and reducing the average number of modules as well as the maximum number of modules per qualification.

The vocational qualifications recognised by the state have four categories:

  • vocational qualifications to be taught exclusively in school-based (formal) TVET;
  • vocational qualifications to be taught either within or without school-based (formal) TVET;
  • vocational qualifications to be taught exclusively in TVET outside the school system; and
  • vocational qualification add-ons and partial vocational qualifications.
National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

A NQF is currently being developed. It is intended to be a comprehensive framework for lifelong learning that embraces all qualifications and education and training subsystems.

Quality Assurance

The Quality Assurance National Reference Point in TVET (EQAVET Hungary) has been set up under the responsibility of the National Institute of Vocational and Adult Education in Hungary. The establishment of the European Quality Assurance in Vocational Education and Training (EQAVET) Hungary has been promoted by the Recommendation of the European Parliament and the Council on the establishment of a European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for Vocational Education and Training, the European Commission and the European Network on Quality Assurance in TVET.

The Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (MKIK) also performs quality assurance functions.

Although, accreditation of adult training institutions and programmes is not mandatory, it is a prerequisite in order to receiving public funding. It is awarded for a definite period of time by the adult training accreditation body, which involves the social partners. Compliance with the legal provisions is inspected by the labour centres and economic chambers assist these centres as regards the practical training parts of OKJ qualifications. This regulation is going to be gradually changed as all stipulations of the relevant new Act step into force.


Source:

CEDEFOP ReferNet (2012). Hungary VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: CEDEFOP

Farkas, P (2013). Vocational Education and Training in Hungary. Budapest: National Labour Office

The European quality assurance in vocational education and training (EQAVET) in Hungary (2013). Quality Assurance National Reference Point. Budapest: EQAVET.Hungary http://eqavet.nive.hu/index.php?lang=EN last access on 23 September 2013


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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

The current reform focuses on promoting the bridging training and integration into training of the underprivileged and the Roma youth, and on reducing the drop-out rates in the TVET grades. It accommodates experience acquired during the introduction of modular and competency-based education and examination. It aims to boost the efficiency of TVET, and to narrow the quality gaps between TVET programmes to the young and adults.

Introduction of scholarship for vocational school students

The scholarship for vocational school students was introduced in 2010 to make education and training offered by the vocational schools more attractive, and to support those who chose a vocational qualification in demand in the economy. The primary objective of the programme is twofold; to make TVET and the career of skilled workers in shortage jobs more attractive to students who may be interested in pursuing vocational training for other occupations, and to alleviate the real or alleged lack of skilled labour in specific occupations.



Source:

CEDEFOP ReferNet (2012). Hungary VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: CEDEFOP

Farkas, P (2013). Vocational Education and Training in Hungary. Budapest: National Labour Office


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7. Statistical information(*)


Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

10.09
10.06
10.04
10.02
10.00
9.98
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

-0.2 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
5.30 4.79
female male  
5.29 4.78
female male  
5.28 4.77
female male  
5.27 4.76
female male  
5.25 4.75
female male  
5.24 4.74
female male  

52.52 %

52.53 %

52.53 %

52.53 %

52.53 %

52.52 %





GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2006

2007

2008

2009

2010


11 174

13 535

15 365

12 635

12 852




Employment (Million)


total female male
Population

9.98

5.24 4.74
.
Labour Force
42.6%
Labour Force Rate

42.6%

37.5%

48.2%

Labour Force

4.26

1.97 (46.3%) 2.29 (53.7%)
Unemployment Rate

11.1%

10.7%

11.5%

.
Unemployment
11.1%
Unemployed

0.47

0.21 (44.3%) 0.26 (55.7%)


Youth Employment (Million)


total youth total female male
Population 9.98 1.20 (12%) 0.59 (49.4%) 0.60 (50.5%)
.
Labour Force Rate

24.9%

22%

27.6%

Labour Force 4.26 0.30 (7%) 0.13 (43.6%) 0.17 (56%)
Unemployment Rate

26.5%

24.6%

27.5%

.
Unemployed 0.47 0.08 (16.7%) 0.03 (40.5%) 0.05 (58.2%)
Unemployed
youth : total

16.7%

.



Participation in TVET (% of upper secondary)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

27%

27%

26%

27%

27%

28%

28%

Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2011

+0.62 %

21 33
female male  
21 32
female male  
21 31
female male  
20 32
female male  
20 33
female male  
21 33
female male  
22 34
female male  
(ratio 38.9 %) (ratio 39.6 %) (ratio 40.4 %) (ratio 38.5 %) (ratio 37.7 %) (ratio 38.9 %) (ratio 39.3 %)





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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions


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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

CEDEFOP ReferNet (2012). Hungary VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: CEDEFOP

Farkas, P (2013). Vocational Education and Training in Hungary. Budapest: National Labour Office

The European quality assurance in vocational education and training (EQAVET) in Hungary (2013). Quality Assurance National Reference Point. Bodapest: EQAVET.Hungary http://eqavet.nive.hu/index.php?lang=EN last access on 23 September 2013

The National Assembly of Hungary (2011). Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education. Budapest: The National Assembly of Hungary http://www.oktatas.hu/pub_bin/dload/nyelvvizsga_honositas/elismertetes_honositas/Act_on_NatHE2011.pdf last access on 19 November 2013

Further reading

CEDEFOP (2011). Vocational education and training in Hungary – Short description. Luxembourg: Publications office of the European Union

OECD (2012). Education at a glance 2012, OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD

http://www.oecd.org/edu/EAG%202012_e-book_EN_200912.pdf last access on 20 September 2013

OECD (2008). Systemic Innovation in the Hungarian VET System. Country case study report. Paris: OECD

National LLGCouncil (2008). Policy statement concerning the development of a national system of lifelong guidance/counselling harmonised with EU requirements. Budapest: National LLGCouncil

http://internet.afsz.hu/resource.aspx?ResourceID=full_kulfoldi_palyaor_eu_magyar_llg_szakpol_ang last access on 20 September 2013

Ministry of Education and Culture and Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour (2009). Education and Training 2010 Work Programme, National Report, Exploring Implementation and Progress in Hungary. Budapest: Europa.eu

http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-policy/doc/natreport09/hungary_en.pdf last access on 20 September 2013

Abbreviations

EMMI - The Ministry for Human Resources (Emberi Erőforrások Minisztériuma)

EQAVET - The European quality assurance in vocational education and training

FSZ - Higher education TVET (felsőoktatási szakképzés)

KKIK - Klebelsberg Institution Maintenance Centre (Klebelsberg Kunó Intézményfenntartó Központ)

MFKB - The County Development and Training Committee (megyei fejlesztésiés képzési bizottság)

MKIK - The Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry

NFA - The National Employment Fund (Nemzeti Foglalkoztatási Alap)

NGM - The Ministry for National Economy (nemzetgazdasági minisztérium)

NQF- National Qualifications Framework

OKJ - The National Qualifications Register (Országos Képzési Jegyzék)

SZH - Vocational Training Contribution (szakképzési hozzájárulás)

SZI - Vocational Schools (szakiskola)

SZKI - Secondary Vocational Schools (szakközépiskola,)

TVET - Technical and vocational Education and Training




Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
Publication Date: 2013-11-27
Validated by: Ms Eszter Karvázy;
Head of Department;
National Labour Office/VET and Adult Education Directorate;
National Reference Point and Further Training Department



page date 2014-06-02

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