World TVET Database - Country Profiles

Indonesia

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Indonesia
published: 2013-07-05

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET strategy

Indonesia is currently undergoing a transition period towards a knowledge economy and increased competitiveness, growth and employment performance.Skills gaps are seen as significant obstacles in this respect, and the country’s government is investing more in the development of the nation’s education and training system in order to close these gaps and to transform the Indonesian TVET system into one that provides demand-driven and practice-oriented programmes, aimed at improving employability and participation in lifelong learning.

The Ministry of National Education that administers formal TVET has increased its investments and made TVET expansion a priority. The Ministry has also set a goal to shift the ratio of students enrolled in general senior secondary education to those in vocational senior education school to 40:60 by 2015.

TVET legislation

  • The overall structure of the Indonesian education system including TVET is stated out in the National Education System Law, enacted in 2003. It describes all levels of education and the structure attached to each of them.
  • Manpower Act n. 13 of 2003 regulates the national training system (preparation for work).
  • The Teacher Law of 2005 and its respective regulations provide for the organisation of teacher profession and its quality.
Sources:

The World bank (2010). Indonesia Skills Report. Washington: the World Bank.

UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII ed. Indonesia. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.



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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme extracted from UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII ed. Indonesia.

Formal TVET system

Upon successful completion of lower secondary school pupils may proceed to senior general secondary schools (SMA ) or senior technical and vocational secondary schools (SMK), both offering 3-year programmes. Access to senior secondary education also depends on the results of an academic and psychological test.

Technical and vocational education consists of 47 programmes in the following fields: technology and engineering; health; arts; craft and tourism; information and communication technologies; agro-business and agro-technology; and business management.

A certificate is awarded upon completion of senior secondary school. Students also sit a national examination, and, if successful, they are awarded a national certificate which grants access to higher education.

Higher education in Indonesia is provided by institutions falling under one of the following 5 types:

  • Single-faculty academies, that provide instruction in only one field and mostly offer either applied science, engineering, or art studies and grant Diplomas and Certificates for technical-level courses at both public and private levels;
  • Advanced schools, that offer academic and professional university-level education in one particular discipline;
  • Polytechnics, that are attached to Universities and provide sub-degree junior technician training;
  • Institutes, that provide education programmes in several fields of study by qualified faculty and are ranked at the same level as universities with the right to grant a degree; and
  • Universities that offer training and higher education in different disciplines.
According to the Law on National Education System of 2003 “non-formal education is provided for community members who need education services which functions as a replacement, complement, and/or supplement to formal education in the frame of supporting life-long education” (Law on National Education System, 2003).

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

The aim of non-formal education is to develop the potential of learners with the emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and functional skills.

‘Non-formal education comprises life-skills education, early childhood education, youth education, women empowerment education, literacy education, vocational training and internship, equivalency program, and other kinds of education aimed at developing learners’ ability’ (Law on National Education System, 2003).

Non-formal education includes non-formal primary, junior secondary and senior secondary equivalent programmes, known as Pakets A, B and C. The Pakets are a part of so called equivalency programme that allows those who do not have access to formal education system to achieve formal qualifications. Pakets A and B together form basic education. These programmes are especially targeted for those living in remote areas.

In addition to equivalency programmes, both private and public institutions offer short-term non-formal vocational training. This training focuses on preparing workers and trainees to enter the job market with specific, upgraded skills.

Public non-formal vocational training providers (known as BLKs), that are under the responsibility of district governments, provide programmes for poor individuals who dropped out of primary or secondary school.

There are 4 types of training offer by BLK:

  • Institutional training (job training programmes which aim to increase the skills of job seekers);
  • Non-institutional training (training programmes for people in remote areas organised through Mobile Training Units);
  • Apprenticeship programmes; and
  • Demand-based trainings (trainings based on the demand of industries).
BLKS are also divided into 3 types:

  • Type A (largest training providers located in urban areas);
  • Type B (training providers located in smaller urban centres); and
  • Type C (the smallest training providers located in rural areas.
Larger centres provide industrial and service skills training, while smaller ones offer training in different technologies and skills for self-employment.

Informal education is identified as a form of self-learning, provided by family and surroundings. Just as in non-formal education the outcomes of the informal one shall be recognised as those of formal after passing government assessment.

Employers give great attention to the development of the skills of their employees; therefore in-service employee training is very important in Indonesia.

Sources:

Government of the Republic of Indonesia (2003). Law on National Education System. National Gazette Republic of Indonesia.

The World bank (2010). Indonesia Skills Report. Washington: the World Bank.

UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII ed. Indonesia. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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3. Governance and financing

Governance

Planning and implementation of educational services is conducted by the Ministry of Education and Culture (MOEC). The following units make up the structure of MOEC at the central level: the General Secretariat; the National Institute for Educational Research and Development; the General Expectorate; the General Directorate of Basic and Secondary Education; the General Directorate of Higher Education; the General Directorate of Non-formal and Informal Education; and the General Directorate for Quality Improvement of Teachers and Education Personnel.

Provincial offices of education established in each of the 34 provinces (as of June 2009) and district offices in 497 districts and municipalities represent MOEC at lower level. These offices manage, adapt and implement ministerial policies at the local level.

The Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration is responsible for the national training system that prepares citizens for the world of work. The National Agency for Professional Certification is in charge of issuing competence certificates.

Financing

In accordance with the Law on National Education of 2003 the financing of education is the shared responsibility of the government, local government and community.

Education expenditure excluding the salary of teachers is allocated at a minimum of 20% of the National Budget and a minimum of 20% of the Regional Budget. Salaries of teachers appointed by government are funded from the National Budget.

Allocation of funds to educational institutions takes the form of a grant. The same form is applied when funds are allocated from National Government to local ones.

Sources:

Government of the Republic of Indonesia (2003). Law on National Education System. National Gazette Republic of Indonesia.

The World bank (2010). Indonesia Skills Report. Washington: the World Bank.

UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII ed. Indonesia. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.



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4. TVET teachers and trainers

According to the Teacher Law of 2005, all teachers must complete certification process that requires them to have a four-year higher education degree by 2015. The teachers are certified in line with the standards developed by the National Standards Board (BSNP).

The main teacher training institutions in Indonesia are teacher training institutes within universities. The Teacher Law of 2005 obliged these institutions to introduce a 4-year course leading to a degree.

Sources:

UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII ed. Indonesia. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.



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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

A graduation certificate is awarded upon completion of senior secondary school. If a student proceeds to tertiary education, upon successful completion of a chosen higher education institution he/she is awarded:

  • A Diploma level qualification when graduating from an Academy or Polytechnic; and
  • At University level, the first stage of studies is classified as Sarajana (level S1). S1 qualification is awarded after 4-years of full-time studies at a recognised university, institute or advanced school. The Magister (S2) is awarded after a period of further studies that has the duration of 2 years.
Students attending public non-formal vocational training institutions (BLKs) receive certificates upon completion. They may also take a company trainee exam and/or a professional association exam to receive a certificate from the company or association in question

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

Indonesia’s TVET National Qualifications Framework is known as Kerangka Kualifikasi Nasional Indonesia, or KKNI.

Quality assurance

According to the Law on the System of Education of 2003 evaluation of educational institutions is undertaken in order to monitor and control the quality of education. Evaluation of learners’ achievement, of institutions and of educational programmes is conducted regularly by independent bodies.

Accreditation of educational programmes and education institutions for formal and non-formal education is also an important part of quality assurance. The National Board of School Accreditation (BAN) and the National Accreditation Board for Higher Education are agencies responsible for conducting accreditation.

Sources:

The World bank (2010). Indonesia Skills Report. Washington: the World Bank.

UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII ed. Indonesia. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.



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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Challenges

The main challenges currently facing TVET in Indonesia can be summarised as follows:

  • Lack of sufficient correspondence between the practical training and skills taught in TVET institutions and the demands of the labour market; and
  • Uneven balance between teachers with academic and practitioner background in TVET institutions, where the latter are underrepresented.


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7. Statistical information(*)


Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

224.48
227.71
230.97
234.24
237.49
240.68
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+1.44 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
111.79 112.69
female male  
113.32 114.39
female male  
114.88 116.09
female male  
116.45 117.79
female male  
118.03 119.46
female male  
119.59 121.09
female male  

49.8 %

49.77 %

49.74 %

49.72 %

49.7 %

49.69 %



Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision

GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012


1 273

1 601

1 871

2 178

2 272

2 947

3 471

3 557


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on World Bank database

Employment (Million)


total female male
Population

240.68

119.59 121.09
.
Labour Force
47.3%
Labour Force Rate

47.3%

36.3%

58.1%

Labour Force

113.83

43.42 (38.1%) 70.41 (61.9%)
Unemployment Rate

7.9%

8.5%

7.5%

.
Unemployment
7.9%
Unemployed

8.96

3.68 (41%) 5.29 (59%)


Youth Employment (Million)


total youth total female male
Population 240.68 43.16 (17.9%) 21.29 (49.3%) 21.87 (50.7%)
.
Labour Force Rate

50.3%

40.4%

60%

Labour Force 113.83 21.72 (19.1%) 8.59 (39.5%) 13.13 (60.5%)
Unemployment Rate

22.2%

23%

21.6%

.
Unemployed 8.96 4.82 (53.8%) 1.98 (41%) 2.84 (59%)
Unemployed
youth : total

53.8%

.

Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC base on ILO: Key indicators of the labour market


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions

  • Ministry of Education and Culture
  • Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration


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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

  • Government of the Republic of Indonesia (2003). Law on National Education System. National Gazette Republic of Indonesia.
  • The World bank (2010). Indonesia Skills Report. Washington: the World Bank.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII ed. Indonesia. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
Abbreviations

BAN - National Board of School Accreditation

BLKs - Public non-formal vocational training providers

BSNP - National Standards Board

MOEC - Ministry Of Education and Culture

SMA - General secondary schools

SMK - Vocational secondary schools





Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
Publication Date: 2013-07-05
Validated by: Mr Winner Jihad Akbar, S.Si.,M.Ak.;
Head of Programming Section;
The Directorate of Vocational Education;
The Directorate of Secondary Education, Kemdikbud



page date 2014-12-19

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