Cambodia

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Cambodia
published: 2014-01-17

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET strategy

The Education Strategic Plan (ESP) 2009-2013 outlined a strategic plan for TVET under a sub-programme named Technical and Vocational Education Expansion. This programme aims to offer TVET in the medium- and short-term, to expand the Vocational Orientation (VO) services, and to strengthen the Life Skills Program (LSP) in schools at all levels. Responding to ESP, three TVET directions have been identified:

In addition, The National TVET Development Plan (NTDP) (2008) has drawn a 25-year development plan for TVET from 1996 to 2020, comprising four steps towards due years as showed in the following scheme:

Scheme extracted from National Training Board (NTB) publication: National TVET Development Plan-2008.

TVET legislation

All TVET legislation can be accessed from the following link: http://www.ntb.gov.kh/lawstvet.htm (in the Khmer language only)

Sources:

Kingdom of Cambodia, Nation Religion King, Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (2010). Education Strategic Plan 2009-2013. Phnom Penh: Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport. http://moeys.gov.kh/en/policies-and-strategies/73-policies/89-2012-08-22-08-22-12.html. Accessed: 25.11.2013.

National Training Board (NTB) (2008). National TVET Development Plan-2008. Phnom Penh: NTB http://www.ntb.gov.kh/tvet/policy/NTDP2008.pdf. Accessed: 25.11.2013.


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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme ext'racted from the Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training Directorate General of TVET publication: Current Status and Future TVET Policy Direction (2011).

Formal TVET system

After compulsory education, which consists of a 6-year primary school followed by a 3-year lower secondary school, students can enrol in the formal TVET programmes or continue to the 3-year upper secondary general education. Upper secondary TVET programmes are offered at three different levels (each lasting one year) in a wide variety of areas, including vehicle repairing, general mechanics, computer technology, agricultural mechanics, electricity, electronics, repairing of cooling mechanics, and civil engineering.

The formal TVET system also recruits graduates from upper secondary schools, who have completed grade 12. The duration of the training varies depending on the course, but it lasts a minimum of one year. For instance, technical and professional training institutions offer programmes lasting two to three years and leading to a certificate/high diploma (Diploma for Technician). Other providers of tertiary TVET are polytechnics and a small number of vocational training centres/schools.

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

The Provincial Training Centres (PTCs) and Vocational Training Centres (VTC) are the major providers of non-formal TVET. These courses are short-term lasting from one to four months and focusing on basic agriculture, construction, motor repair skills, craft, and basic food processing. They are mainly designed to address social dislocation and poverty reduction, and target in particular rural areas.

For example, PTCs offer the following courses:

  • 1-2 weeks course on agriculture (representing the majority of courses offered by PTCs 46%); and
  • 3-4 or 6 months courses on technical trade (15%), textiles-garments (9%), hairdressing-beauty (5%), with computing, tourism, hospitality, business, art, and languages making up the remaining 25%.
There is an array of other non-formal training offered by private providers and NGOs, which focuses on non-formal agricultural provision, craft, textiles and garments.

Sources:

UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education, Cambodia VII Ed. 2010/11. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/pdf-versions/Cambodia.pdf Last access on 25 November 2013



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3. Governance and financing

Governance

The National Training Board (NTB) is an apex body for TVET policy formation and for the approval of strategies to implement that policy. NTB is chaired by a deputy prime minister and includes senior representatives of all involved ministries, employers, employees, trade union, training providers (public, privates, and NGOs/IOs), and donors with limited private sector memberships. NTB has not only a coordinating function but also the leadership role in linking a national training programme to the needs of the economy. NTB was formally constituted in 1996 in recognition by the government. The mandate of NTB is to:

  • prepare policy and national training plans for TVET;
  • coordinate and orient TVET to meet the demand-driven needs of the national economy in the present and the future; and
  • propose a project to renew and further develop the TVET system.
The Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MOLVT) upon its establishment in 2004 took on the responsibility for TVET programmes, which used to be under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MOEYS).

The Directorate General of TVET (DGTVET) under the authority of the MOLVT acts as the secretariat for the NTB. It is responsible for supporting, expanding and assuring the quality of public and private provision of TVET. The mandate of DGTVET is as follows:

  • to develop a national policy for TVET and manage TVET systems;
  • to review the needs of the labour market and prepare an occupational policy based on the national policy for TVET;
  • to screen proposals for the establishment of institutions, centres and schools providing TVET services;
  • to control, monitor and evaluate public and private institutions of TVET; and
  • to coordinate the communications among ministries, institutions, organisations in the region and in the world to promote TVET in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and international cooperation organisations.
Financing

TVET is funded by the government, international organisations, donors and other stakeholders. The government and non-government funds are allocated by the NTB through the National Training Fund (NTF), which was developed in 1998. The Asian Development Bank is the major donor agency, which has been funding TVET in Cambodia since 1992.

Sources:

UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education, Cambodia VII Ed. 2010/11. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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4. TVET teachers and trainers

The National Technical Training Institute (NTTI), founded officially in 1999, is a state-own higher education institute under the direction of the Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MOLVT). The NTTI is responsible for training selected university graduates to become capable and professional TVET teachers and upgrading trainers and administrative TVET staff. Teacher training is a one-year programme consisting of 37 credits. The NTTI also provides Vocational Technical Teacher Training Programme through which candidates can apply for Master, Bachelor and Diploma (Associate) degrees.

The government has set a policy to train 300 TVET teachers every year and by 2012 more than 2000 TVET teachers have been trained.

The National TVET Development Plan-2008 has recommended rethinking the NTTI structure and curriculum to ensure that it is clearly linked to the needs of TVET and so that the Institute can undertake the assigned leadership role in research and development.

Sources:

National Training Board (NTB) (2008). National TVET Development Plan-2008. Phnom Penh: NTB http://www.ntb.gov.kh/tvet/policy/NTDP2008.pdf. Accessed: 26.11.2013

Regional Cooperation Platform (RCP) (2013). Official website http://rcp-platform.com/rcp-members/ntti-cambodia/. Accessed: 26.11.2013.

The National Technical Training Institute (NTTI) (2013). Official website http://www.ntti.edu.kh/. Accessed: 26.11.2013.


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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Semi-skilled workers 1 year Certificate I
Skilled workers 2 years Certificate II
Highly skilled workers 3 years Certificate III/ high school diploma (Baccalauréat)

Post-secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Polytechnic Diploma for Technicians
Polytechnic Bachelor's degree for Engineers

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

The National Training Board (NTB) approved the Cambodian NQF in 2012. It comprises 8 levels as shown in the following table. The next step is to enact the regulatory framework and sub-decree in order to implement this framework throughout the country.

Cambodian NQF Level General Education System TVET System Higher Education System
8
Doctoral Degree Doctoral Degree
7
Master of Technology/Business Master Degree
6
Bachelor of Technology/Engineering/Business Bachelor Degree
5
Higher Diploma of Technical/ Business Associate Degree
4
Upper Secondary School certificate TVET Certificate III
3
Upper Secondary School certificate TVET Certificate II
2
Upper Secondary School certificate TVET Certificate I
1
Lower Secondary School Certificate Vocational Skill Certificate
Table extracted from the Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training Directorate General of TVET publication: Current Status and Future TVET Policy Direction (2011)

Quality assurance

The Directorate General of TVET (DGTVET) has the central responsibility of assuring the quality of TVET provision. Training providers must meet and continue to meet the agreed standards to be eligible for government training funds.

Sources:

Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (2011). Directorate General of TVET publication: Current Status and Future TVET Policy Direction.



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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

In 2011 the Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MOLVT) and the Directorate General of TVET (DGTVET) identified the TVET policy priorities and categorised them into: (1) micro policies; (2) development policies to support the micro policies; and (3) enabling policies to sustain demand-driven TVET system to guide the direction of future TVET development, as follows:

Micro Policies

  • Policy 1: Poverty reduction
  • Policy 2: Decentralisation
Development Policies to Support Micro Policies

  • Policy 3: Supporting industrial growth
  • Policy 4: Community and enterprise based training
  • Policy 5: Out of School Youth
  • Policy 6: Self-employment
  • Policy 7: Micro Credit
  • Policy 8: Small Enterprise
Enabling Policies to Sustain Demand-Driven TVET System

  • Policy 9: Public Private Partnership (PPP)-financing of TVET
  • Policy 10: PPP-enterprise involvement in TVET
  • Policy 11: PPP-Expanding the provision of TVET
  • Policy 12: Quality Assurance of TVET
  • Policy 13: Quality of TVET leadership, management and coordination
  • Policy 14: Labour market information
  • Policy 15: Competency Standards
The Strengthening Technical and Vocational Education and Training (STVET) project is a five-year project (2010-2015) developed by the government to improve access, relevance and quality of TVET system, in particular to align TVET system to the emerging labour market needs. The objectives of STVET include:

  • Promoting TVET;
  • Creating jobs in the formal and informal sectors, in particular in rural areas; and
  • Establishing TVET networks.
Recently the government in cooperation with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) have agreed on a second phase of STVET (2014-2019). The outputs of the second phase are as follows:

  • Increased access to TVET programmes;
  • Improved quality and relevance of the TVET system; and
  • Strengthened governance and management in TVET delivery.
Challenges

TVET has two major and often competing directions. First, TVET needs to be responsive to social equity issues by assisting the poor to master skills which will enhance family income through better farm productivity or basic self-employment. Second, TVET must meet the needs of enterprises for skilled and adaptable workforce. With limited resources, the government aims to link TVET institutes to the needs of communes as defined by communes themselves and promotes to the concept of demand-driven TVET, which focuses on the labour market needs and competency-based training.

Action plans to overcome challenges:

  • Promoting quality teaching/training in both hard and soft skills to meet labour market needs;
  • Installing adequate equipment and facilities according to the training needs;
  • Strengthening and upgrading TVET teachers and trainers based on the new technology and current and future needs of the labour market;
  • Developing competency-based curriculum that is responsive to new trends in technology and the labour market information;
  • Increasing and promoting the use of new resources (increasing internet connectivity);
  • Collaborating with relevant employers and training providers; and
  • Providing in-service training courses for both teachers and students.
Sources:


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7. Statistical information(*)


Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

13.36
13.52
13.67
13.82
13.98
14.14
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+1.17 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
6.84 6.52
female male  
6.92 6.60
female male  
6.99 6.68
female male  
7.07 6.76
female male  
7.14 6.84
female male  
7.22 6.92
female male  

51.21 %

51.18 %

51.15 %

51.12 %

51.1 %

51.08 %



Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision

GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010


471

538

632

749

744

795


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on World Bank Database

Employment (Million)


total female male
Population

14.14

7.22 6.92
.
Labour Force
42.5%
Labour Force Rate

42.5%

43.3%

41.6%

Labour Force

6.01

3.13 (52.1%) 2.88 (47.9%)
Unemployment Rate

1.7%

2%

1.4%

.
Unemployment
1.7%
Unemployed

0.10

0.06 (61.5%) 0.04 (38.5%)


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on ILO: unemployment indicators by sex

Participation in TVET (% of upper secondary)


2006

2007

2008

6%

8%

7%

Average yearly population growth rate 2006 - 2008

+8.33 %

6 6
female male  
9 7
female male  
8 7
female male  
(ratio 50 %) (ratio 56.3 %) (ratio 53.3 %)


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Data Centre-beta Country Profiles


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions


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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

Abbreviation

ADB - Asian Development Bank

DGTVET - Directorate General of TVET

ESP - Education Strategic Plan

LSP - Life Skills Program

MOEYS - Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports

MOLVT - Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training

NGOs/IOs - Non-Governmental Organisations/International Organisations

NQF - National Qualification Framework

NTB - National Training Board

NTDP - National TVET Development Plan

NTF - National Training Fund

NTTI - National Technical Training Institute

PPP - Public Private Partnership

PTCs - Provincial Training Centres

STVET - Strengthening Technical and Vocational Education and Training project

TVET - Technical and Vocational Education and Training

VO - Vocational Orientation

VTC - Vocational Training Centres





Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
Publication Date: 2014-01-17
Validated by: Hing Sideth;
Department of Technical and Vocational Education and Training Management (DTVETM);
Cambodia



page date 2014-06-02

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