World TVET Database - Country Profiles

Philippines

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Philippines
published: 2014-04-30

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET strategy

The National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan 2011-2016 (NTESDP) sets out a course of action for all relevant TVET stakeholders. The NTESDP is anchored on the Philippine Development Plan 2011 -2016 and the Labour and Employment Plan 2011 – 2016, which both seek to promote inclusive growth in the Philippines. The NTESDP focuses on building a national system of ensuring quality TVET programmes. The NTESDP is the third cycle plan, the two previous TVET strategies being - the 1st cycle NTESDP (1999‐2004) and the 2nd cycle NTESDP (2005‐2009).

The strategies, objectives and the desired outcome of the current NTESDP are depicted in the graphic below:

Scheme extracted from TESDA publication: National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan 2011-2016, 2011.

TVET legislation

  • Constitution of 1987 enshrines the right to education in the Philippines;
  • Education Act of 1982 outlined he objectives of formal and non-formal education at all levels; and
  • Republic Act No. 6655 provides for free public secondary education and Republic Act No. 6728 specifies a legal framework for private education;
The following Acts realised the recommendation of the Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) to create the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) separately from the Department of Basic Education (DepEd) for the effective management of the education and training sector:

  • Republic Act No. 9155 in August 2001 regulates Basic Education managed by the Department of Education (DepEd).
  • Republic Act No. 7796 in August 1994 (also known as the Technical Education and Skills Development Act 1994) established and mandates the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). The Act also facilitates cooperation among all TVET stakeholders to improve skills development of the county’s human resources.
  • Republic Act No. 7722 in May 1994 established the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) responsible for Higher Education.
  • Republic Act No. 10533 and the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 provided for additional two years of secondary education increasing the number of years of basic education from ten to twelve years with the introduction of senior high school.
  • Executive Order No. 83 Series of 2012 entitled ‘Institutionalisation of the Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF)’ was issued by the President in October 1, 2012. This Order guides the national policy by describing the levels of educational qualifications and setting the standards for qualification outcomes. It is a quality-assured national system for the development, recognition and award of qualifications based on standards of knowledge, skills and values acquired in different ways and methods by learners and workers of a certain country. It is designed to support mobility through comparability and mutual recognition of skills across countries. It also serves as a guide in identifying possible entry and exit points into and out of the education system.


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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from Commission on Higher Education CHED publication 2013.

Formal TVET system

Compulsory basic education starts at the age of five and is divided into three levels: Kindergarten, primary education (grade 1-6) and secondary education (grade 7-12).

TVET programmes are included in secondary and tertiary education. Secondary education includes two-year TVET specialisation track (NC I and NC II) along with the general track (four years). Tertiary (post-secondary) education includes technical and vocational programmes covering for high level qualifications (NC I – IV and Diploma level).

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Along with the formal school-based TVET, there are three other delivery modes: centre-based, community- based and enterprise-based:

  • Centre- based programmes are delivered by the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) on the regional and provincial level. There are 15 regional and 45 provincial training centres.
  • Community-based training programmes address specifically the needs for skills in the community to facilitate self-employment. They target poor and marginal groups who cannot access formal education because of their low skills and limited financial resources. These programmes support trainees in developing livelihood enterprise plans that are implemented directly after training. These programmes are conducted in coordination between the Local Government Units (LGUs) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) engaged in skill development for the poor and marginalised groups.
  • Enterprise-based training includes apprenticeship and learnership programmes and the Dual Training System (DTS). Apprenticeship programmes are based on an apprenticeship agreement between the employer and the trainee. These programmes’ duration varies from a minimum of three to a maximum of six months. Apprenticeships can only be offered by TESDA-accredited employers. Learnership programmes are short-term (maximum three months) on-the- job training courses approved by TESDA. The Dual Training System (DTS) is a system of skill delivery for technology-based education and training conducted both at training institutions and the workplace. The DTS is based on cooperation between training institutions and companies accredited by TESDA. Training institutions that meet minimum standards for facilitating equipment, instructors and training plans receive accreditation from TESDA. In addition, companies need to apply for accreditation through an accredited institution.
Alternative Learning System (ALS)

The ALS provides an alternative to the existing formal education system. As part of the ALS, the Alternative Learning System Accreditation and Equivalency System (ALS A&E) grants certification for both non-formal and informal knowledge and offers skills training for out-of-school youth. After a successful completion of an ALS A&E test at both primary and secondary levels, students can access advisory services to explore their further education opportunities or available paths into the labour market.


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3. Governance and financing

Governance

The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) is responsible for managing and supervising the TVET system in the Philippines. It serves as an advisory body for TVET stakeholders and is in charge of developing policies and standards towards quality technical education and skill development. The TESDA facilitates mobilisation and full participation of all TVET stakeholders (industry, local government units, TVET institutions and the workforce) in the development of the Philippine’s human resources. The TESDA is the result of a fusion between agencies dealing with different aspects of TVET. It aims to coordinate TVET activities, reduce the overlap in skills development programmes and give direction to the national TVET system.

The TESDA is mandated to:

  • integrate, coordinate and monitor skills development programs;
  • restructure efforts to promote and develop middle-level manpower;
  • approve skills standards and tests;
  • develop an accreditation system for institutions involved in middle-level manpower development;
  • fund programmes and projects for technical education and skill development; and
  • assist trainer training programmes.
The TESDA oversees 4540 public and private TVET schools and training centres, including its own 125 agri-fishery, trade and specialised training institutions. Of the total number of TVET institutions in the country, 10% are public while 90% are private. As of 2012, there were 777 enterprises providing apprenticeship and learnership programmes.

Financing

The TVET system is financed through public and private funds; for instance between 2006 – 2010 46.5 % of TVET funding originated from public and 53.5 % from private sources.

Public TVET programmes are funded through the following agencies:

  • Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), which funds a network of TESDA Technology Institutions;
  • Local Government Units (LGU), which fund short-courses in TVET;
  • Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG);
  • Department of Agriculture (DA); and
  • Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD);
Funding for private TVET initiatives derives from the following sources.

  • Fees paid by trainees towards their TVET course;
  • Companies, which fund apprenticeships, training programmes and offer allowances to trainees; and
  • NGOs which run training courses and provide funding for training institutions.


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4. TVET teachers and trainers

The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) established the National TVET Trainers-Assessors Qualification Program (NTTAQP) in 2006. This programme provides for continuing training for TVET trainers, school administrators and supervisors to improve the delivery of technology-based TVET training. The NTTAQP is made up of four levels as follows:

  • Level I- Trainers-Assessors
  • Level II- Training Designers/Developers
  • Level III- Training Supervisors and Mentors
  • Level IV- Master Trainer
Under the NTTAQP in the period of 2006 -2010, the following number of TVET trainers is trained:

Scheme extracted from TESDA publication: National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan 2011-2016, 2011.

Training of TVET teachers and trainers is also available through ‘Train The Trainer Program’ (TTTP), which is a collaboration between the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), the Temasek Foundation (TF) and the Institute of Technical Education (ITE) Education Services (ITEES) of Singapore. The TTTP focuses on pedagogical skills for TVET trainers and is conducted in accordance with the Philippine TVET Trainers Qualification Framework (PTTQF). For instance, a group of 60 TVET trainers received the training in 2010.



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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

In 2012, the Philippines developed a Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF) to foster innovation and responsiveness in the whole education and training system. The PQF is a practicable system of credit transfers and allows seamless transitions between and among basic education, technical education and skills development and higher education.

There are eight levels in the PQF, starting with Level 1 which focuses on manual, concrete, or practical skills up to Level 8 which corresponds to doctoral and postdoctoral programmes. The full description of the whole framework can be found in The Philippine Qualification Framework - TESDA Policy Brief 2012; TESDA publication http://www.tesda.gov.ph/uploads/File/policybrief2013/PB%20Philippine%20Qualification%20Framework.pdf.

Scheme extracted from TESDA publication: The Philippine Qualification Framework - TESDA Policy Brief 2012.

The Philippine TVET Qualification and Certification System (PTQCS)

The PTQCS is a qualification system ensuring recognition of attained competences as defined for middle-level occupations. It was established as a unified TVET qualification framework for competency assessment and prior learning recognition. To receive a recognised qualification, students are tested through observation, oral questioning, written tests, third party reports, portfolio and work projects.

Quality assurance

TESDA established in 1998 a Unified TVET Program Registration and Accreditation System (UTPRAS); a regulatory mechanism by which TVET programmes are quality-assured. All TVET providers are mandated to comply with a set of standards for TVET provision. This process involves compulsory registration of programmes in compliance with the standards prescribed in the Training Regulations and competency-based system. TVET programme registration takes into consideration compliance to standards in curriculum design, qualification of trainers, facilities and tools and equipment.

Training regulations are being developed in consultation with industry leaders and promulgated by the TESDA Board. The training regulations consist of the competency standards, training standards and assessment and certification arrangements. These provide the basis for the development of curriculum and instructional materials and competency assessment packages for competency-based technical education and skills development.

Competency-Based TVET System allows for recognition of prior learning (RPL) or current competencies and is competency-based adherent to the following principles:

  • Training is based on curriculum developed from the competency standards;
  • Learning is modular in structure;
  • Training delivery is individualised and self-paced;
  • Training is based on work that must be performed;
  • Training materials are directly related to the competency standards and the curriculum modules;
  • Training is based on both on- and off-the-job components;
  • Training allows for multiple entry and exit; and
  • Assessment is based on the collection of evidence of the performance of work consistent to the industry-required standards; and
  • Approved training programmes are nationally-accredited.
A component of UTPRAS is voluntary accreditation, which refers to the process of assessing and upgrading the quality of TVET programmes through self-evaluation and external assessment by a TESDA-recognised accrediting body. The system provides multi-level accreditation status and public recognition and conferment that a TVET programme meets the standards set beyond the minimum requirements of programme registration.

Competency Assessment and Certification System (under the PTQCS)

The Competency Assessment and Certification System, a major pillar in TESDA’s authority role, is among the essential quality assurance mechanisms in TVET. It ensures that TVET graduates and skilled workers have the necessary competence to perform the tasks consistent with the required standards in the workplace. It involves the process of gathering evidence to prove possession of competencies according to industry standards.

Attainment of all competencies in the qualification warrants a worker a National Certificate (NC) at a particular qualification level. A Certificate of Competency (COC) is proof of possession of a particular competency but falling short of a national qualification.


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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

The 3rd Cycle National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan (NTESDP) 2011 – 2016 carves out new pathways for TVET and outlines innovative strategies to guide the major TVET actors on the courses of action that need to be carried out to address the economy’s future skills requirements. An example of these innovative strategies is to develop and implement programmes for green jobs.

Green Skills in TVET

This strategy aims to support the skills requirements of ‘green-collar jobs’. The strategy recommends pursuing the following actions:

  • developing new training regulations or amending/reviewing existing ones that are needed for green jobs and sustainable development;
  • building capacity of trainers and administrators to implement green skills programmes; and
  • linking-up with local and international agencies in the design, implementation and monitoring of green skills programmes.
Challenges

The Philippines Skills Report (2010) identified a number of challenges facing the education system in general and TVET in particular. The main weaknesses were poor quality of facilities and weak labour market relevance. The following challenges were outlined in that report:

  • Lack of available training centres for community-based programmes;
  • Differences in quality of TVET trainers across regions;
  • Limited labour market absorption of TVET graduates in manufacturing jobs;
  • Low quality and relevance of TVET, particularly for school-based and privately-run programmes;
  • Low recognition of the importance of labour market relevance in TVET
  • Low cultural status of TVET; and
  • High concentration of drop-outs from school-based TVET programmes, particularly in private schools.


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7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

85.55
87.12
88.65
90.17
91.70
93.26
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+1.8 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
42.53 43.02
female male  
43.33 43.79
female male  
44.12 44.54
female male  
44.90 45.28
female male  
45.68 46.02
female male  
46.48 46.78
female male  

49.71 %

49.74 %

49.76 %

49.79 %

49.82 %

49.84 %



Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision

GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2006

2007

2008

2009

2010


1 403

1 685

1 925

1 836

2 140


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on World Bank Database

Employment (Million)


total female male
Population

93.26

46.48 46.78
.
Labour Force
40.6%
Labour Force Rate

40.6%

31.5%

49.5%

Labour Force

37.82

14.64 (38.7%) 23.18 (61.3%)
Unemployment Rate

7.5%

7.4%

7.5%

.
Unemployment
7.5%
Unemployed

2.83

1.09 (38.5%) 1.74 (61.5%)


Youth Employment (Million)


total youth total female male
Population 93.26 17.90 (19.2%) 8.80 (49.2%) 9.10 (50.8%)
.
Labour Force Rate

46.1%

35.6%

56.3%

Labour Force 37.82 8.25 (21.8%) 3.13 (38%) 5.12 (62.1%)
Unemployment Rate

17.4%

19.3%

16.2%

.
Unemployed 2.83 1.43 (50.7%) 0.61 (42.2%) 0.83 (57.8%)
Unemployed
youth : total

50.7%

.

Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on ILO: unemployment indicators by sex


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions



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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

Abbreviations

ALS - Alternative Learning System

ALS A&E - Alternative Learning System Accreditation and Equivalency System

CHED - Commission on Higher Education

COC - Certificate of Competency

DA - Department of Agriculture

DepEd - Department of Basic Education

DILG - Department of Interior and Local Government

DSWD - Department of Social Welfare and Development

DTS - Dual Training System

EDCOM - Congressional Commission on Education

ITE - Institute of Technical Education

ITEES - ITE Education Services

LGUs - Local Government Units

NC - National Certificate

NGOs - Non-Governmental Organisations

NTESDP - National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan 2011-2016

NTTAQP - National TVET Trainers-Assessors Qualification Program

PQF - Philippine Qualifications Framework

PTQCS - Philippine TVET Qualification and Certification System

PTTQF - Philippine TVET Trainers Qualification Framework

RPL - recognition of prior learning

TESDA - Technical Education and Skills Development Authority

TF - Temasek Foundation

TTTP - Train The Trainer Program

TVET - Technical and Vocational Education and Training

UTPRAS - Unified TVET Program Registration and Accreditation System





Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
Publication Date: 2014-04-30
Validated by: Ms MARIA SUSAN P. DELA RAMA;
The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA)



page date 2014-12-19

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