World TVET Database - Country Profiles

Chad

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Chad
published: 2014-12-11

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

TVET is known in Chad as l’Enseignement et la Formation Technique et Professionnelle) (EFTP) and its mission is to ensure that students are prepared for social and professional integration and to create awareness of national and African identity.

TVET strategy

The promotion of TVET programmes are supported by a number of documents as follows:

  • The National Plan for Education for All (Plan d’Action de l’Education pour Tous) (PAN/ETP) (2002-2015) and the Support Programme for the Education Sector (Programme d’Appui à la Réforme du Secteur de l’Education au Tchad) (PARSET) (2003-2015). Both documents focus on improving vulnerable groups’ access to education and TVET. They aim to (1) improve the quality of education by developing programmes and policies, and improving the quality of teaching; and (2) reinforce administrative capacities by underlining the need to decentralise the education system.
  • The Strategy for Growth and the Reduction of Poverty: 2008-2011 (Document de Stratégie de Croissance et de Réduction de la Pauvreté: 2008-2011) aimed to tackle socio-economic issues such as poverty and particularly set out a number of TVET related objectives and strategies to accomplish this aim such as: (1) orient tertiary education and TVET programmes to the needs of the labour market; (2) construct 42 apprenticeship centres and 5 TVET centres; and (3) link TVET to employment and increase TVET enrolment, especially among vulnerable groups and girls.
  • The Education – Training – Employment (Education – Formation – Emploi) (EFE) (1993) strategy aimed to, amongst others: (1) improve human resources by improving the education and training system, with particular emphasis on basic education, technical education and vocational training; and (2) promote girls' education with special efforts towards deprived areas.
In order to accomplish these aims the strategy established the Support Programme for Education and Training (Programme d’Appui à l’Education et à la Formation) (PAEF) which aimed to improve equal access to the education system and the quality of education programmes. The strategy has also established the national fund for Vocational Training (Fonds National d’Appui à la Formation Professionnelle) with the aim to financially support TVET programmes.

TVET legislation

  • Law n°016/RP/2006 institutionalises the Chad education system and guarantees all citizens the right to all forms of education, including TVET.
  • Law n°23/PR/2002 establishes the Agency for the Promotion of Community Education Initiatives (l’Agence pour la Promotion des Initiatives Communautaires en Education) (APICED), an organisation funded by Chad and the World Bank and in charge of financing formal and non-formal TVET programmes.
  • Decree n°406 (2000) delineates the organisation and implementation of TVET programmes in Chad.
Sources:

  • African Development Fund (2003). Support Project for Education – the Republic of Chad. Accessed: 16 July 2014.
  • Republic of Chad (2002). National Plan for Education for All. N’Djamena: Republic of Chad. Accessed: 17 July 2014.
  • Republic of Chad (2008). Strategy for Growth and the Reduction of Poverty: 2008-2011. N’Djamena: Republic of Chad. Accessed: 16.07.2014.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Chad. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education, VII Ed. 2010/11. Chad. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

After completion of 6 years of primary and 4 years of post-primary education (in total 10 years of basic education), students proceed to a secondary education that completes 13 years of schooling.

Formal TVET system

TVET programmes are offered to students at the secondary education level by (1) technical and vocational training centres (centres de formation technique et professionnelle) (CFTP), (2) technical and vocational education colleges (collèges d’enseignement technique) and (3) technical and vocational high schools. Admission criteria to the TVET institutions are as follows:

  • CFTP admit students who are at least 15 years old and have a BEPC;
  • CETP admit students who are have a BEPC or any equivalent qualification; and
  • The technical and vocational high schools admit students who are have a BEPC or any equivalent qualification.
TVET programmes at the tertiary level are offered by universities, specialised institutes (grande écoles), or centres. Tertiary TVET programmes are open to holders of a Baccalaureate, or an equivalent secondary education level certification.

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Non-formal TVET is provided by various stakeholders. For example,

  • the Ministry of Rural Development (Ministère du Développement Rural) provides education and training through structures adapted to the rural regions.
  • the Ministry for Public Functions, Employment and Modernisation (Ministère de la Fonction Publique, du Travail, de la Promotion de l’Emploi et de la Modernisation) (MFPTPEM) provides TVET in vocational education centres; and
  • the Ministry of Agriculture (Ministère de l’Agriculture) (MA) also provides TVET in vocational education centres.
In addition nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) also provide education and training; the Catholic Relief for Development (Secours Catholique pour le Développement) (SECADEV) helps with adult literacy and training in training centres.

According to the National Development Plan (Plan Nationale de Développement) 2013-2015, the informal sector in urban areas represents around 70% of employment and business. Despite the significant size of the informal sector, informal TVET systems are not documented.

Sources:

  • Republic of Chad (2002). National Plan for Education for All. N’Djamena: Republic of Chad. Accessed: 17 July 2014.
  • Republic of Chad (2013). National Development Plan 2013-2015. N’Djamena: Republic of Chad. Accessed: 16 July 2014.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Chad. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    3. Governance and financing

Governance

The Ministry of National Education(Ministère de l’Éducation Nationale) (MEN) is responsible for the development and implementation of TVET related policies, structures and programmes. Other ministries involved in TVET governance and non-formal TVET programmes include:

  • The Ministry for Public Functions, Employment and Modernisation(Ministère de la Fonction Publique, du Travail, de la Promotion de l’Emploi et de la Modernisation) (MFPTPEM) ;
  • The Ministry of Agriculture (Ministère de l’Agriculture) (MA); and
  • The Ministry of Industry, Commerce, and Crafts (Ministère de l’Industrie, du Commerce et de l’Artisanat) (MDICA).
The TVET system in Chad is decentralised. Regional Delegations for National Education (Délégations Régionales de l’Education Nationale) (DREN) are responsible for the implementation of TVET policies, and for the development of TVET programmes on the regional level. There are 22 regions in Chad, and secondary schools in each region are under the supervision of the respective regional delegation.

Financing

TVET programmes are financed by a number of stakeholders. These include the State, the private sector and international actors. State financing can be categorised as follows:

  • Finance from the relevant ministries; and
  • Funds such as the National fund for Vocational Training (Fonds National d’Appui à la Formation Professionnelle).
Private sources of finance can be categorised into those by private sector companies, and Parents Associations financing. The French Development Agency (Agence Française de Développement) is an example of an international organisation cooperating in the field of TVET.

Sources:

  • Nation fund for Vocational Training (2004). Mission. Accessed: 16 July 2014.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Chad. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    4. TVET teachers and trainers

The training of TVET teachers and trainers is the responsibility of the Ministry of Higher Education, of Research, and of Vocational Training (Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique). Programmes are taught at Specialised Institutes for Education (Institutes Supérieur des Sciences de l’Education (ISSED).

Sources:

  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Chad. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Technical and vocational training centres (centres de formation technique et professionnelle) (CFTP) 2 years Final Technical and Vocational Education Diploma (Diplôme de Fin de Formation Technique et Professionnelle)
Technical and vocational education colleges (collèges d’enseignement technique) 2 years Certificate of Vocational Education (Brevet d’Études Professionnelles) (BEP)
Technical and vocational high schools 3 years Baccalaureate, Technical Baccalaureate, or Technician Certificate (Brevet de Technicien) (BT)
Post-secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Undergraduate 4 years Vocational Bachelor’s (Licence Professionnelle) (LPST)
Postgraduate 1-2 years Vocational Master’s (Maitrise Professionnelle) (MPST)

Quality assurance

The Ministry of Secondary Education and Vocational Training (Ministère des Enseignements Secondaires et des Formations Professionnelles) (MESFP) and the Ministry of National Education(Ministère de l’Éducation Nationale) (MEN) are responsible for the quality of TVET programmes at the national level. Particularly MESFP has a number of sub-entities, as follows:

  • the Inspectorate General (Inspection Générale) is in charge of inspecting and controlling the MESFP services; and
  • the Directorate for secondary technical education (Direction de l’Enseignement Secondaire Technique) is responsible for the quality of TVET programmes.
The Regional Delegations for National Education(Délégations Régionales de l’Education Nationale) (DREN) are responsible for TVET quality on the regional level. Particularly:

  • the National Education Inspection Departments (Inspections Départementales de l’Education Nationale) are in charge of TVET at the department level; and
  • the Educational Inspectorates (Inspections Pédagogiques) are in charge of TVET at the sub-prefecture level.
Sources:

  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Chad. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

The Interim Strategy for Education and Literacy(Stratégie Intérimaire pour l’Education et l’Alphabétisation) 2013-2015 highlights the need to orient students through the education system. Specifically in response to student drop outs, the strategy introduces basic non-formal education (l’Éducation de Base Non Formelle) (EBNF) as a form of basic education. Amongst others, EBNF enables children between 9 and 14 to have access to TVET programmes and apprenticeships.

The National Development Plan(Plan Nationale de Développement) 2013-2015 aims to improve access to education, the quality of education, and the management and administration of education. Specifically in relation to TVET the Plan initiates a construction project to build new academic and vocational institutions.

A National Interim Strategy for Technical Education and Vocational Training (Stratégie Interimaire pour l'Enseignement Technique et la Formation Professionnelle) has been developed and at the time of compiling this report, the strategy is awaiting validation in the government.

Challenges

According to the National Development Plan(Plan Nationale de Développement) 2013-2015, TVET in Chad faces the following challenges:

  • To link TVET programmes to the labour market. For instance although the majority of unemployed people have significant levels of education and qualifications, they have no vocational skills;
  • To establish a youth-job training programme to improve youth employability, and to create businesses;
  • To improve TVET programmes. Interviewed staff considered TVET as an issue that needs more attention.
Sources:

  • Republic of Chad (2012). Interim Strategy for Education and Literacy. N’Djamena: Republic of Chad. Accessed: 16 July 2014.
  • Republic of Chad (2013). National Development Plan 2013-2015. N’Djamena: Republic of Chad. Accessed: 16 July 2014.


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    7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

10.01
10.36
10.09
11.03
11.37
11.72
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+3.41 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
5.01 5.00
female male  
5.18 5.17
female male  
5.35 5.35
female male  
5.52 5.52
female male  
5.68 5.69
female male  
5.86 5.87
female male  

50.06 %

50.04 %

50.02 %

50 %

49.98 %

49.96 %



Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2012 revision

GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010


664

717

808

939

814

909


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on World Bank Database

Participation in TVET (% of upper secondary)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

5%

5%

4%

4%

3%

4%

4%

4%

Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2012

-2.86 %

9 3
female male  
9 4
female male  
6 3
female male  
8 2
female male  
6 2
female male  
6 3
female male  
6 3
female male  
7 3
female male  
(ratio 75 %) (ratio 69.2 %) (ratio 66.7 %) (ratio 80 %) (ratio 75 %) (ratio 66.7 %) (ratio 66.7 %) (ratio 70 %)


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Data Centre-beta Country Profiles


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions


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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

Abbreviations

  • APICED - Agency for the Promotion of Community Education Initiatives (l’Agence pour la Promotion des Initiatives Communautaires en Education)
  • BEP - Certificate of Vocational Education (Brevet d’Études Professionnelles)
  • BEPC - Education certificate of the first cycle (Brevet d'études du premier cycle)
  • BT - Technician Certificate (Brevet de Technicien)
  • CE - Elementary Class
  • CEPE - Elementary school certificate (Certificat d'études primaires élémentaires)
  • CFTP - Technical and vocational training centres (centres de formation technique et professionnelle)
  • CM - Middle Class
  • CP - Preparatory Class
  • DEST - Directorate for Secondary technical Education (Direction de l’Enseignement Secondaire Technique)
  • DGEF - Directorate for Education and Training (Direction Générale de l’Enseignement et de la Formation)
  • DREN - Regional Delegations for National Education (Délégations Régionales de l’Education Nationale)
  • EBNF - Basic Non-Formal Education (l’Éducation de Base Non Formelle)
  • EFE - Education - Training - Employment (Education - Formation - Emploi)
  • EFTP - l’Enseignement et la Formation Technique et Professionnelle
  • ISSED - Specialised Institutes for Education (Institutes Supérieur des Sciences de l’Education)
  • LPST - Bachelor of Vocational Education (Licence Professionnelle)
  • MA - Ministry of Agriculture (Ministère de l’Agriculture)
  • MDICA - Ministry of Industry, Commerce, and Crafts (Ministère de l’Industrie, du Commerce et de l’Artisanat)
  • MEN - Ministry of National Education (Ministère de l’Education Nationale)
  • MESFP - Ministry of Secondary Education and Vocational Training (Ministère des Enseignements Secondaires et des Formations Professionnelles)
  • MFPTPEM - Ministry for Public Functions, Employment and Modernisation (Ministère de la Fonction Publique, du Travail, de la Promotion de l’Emploi et de la Modernisation)
  • MPST - Master of Vocational Education (Maitrise Professionnelle)
  • PAEF - Support Programme for Education and Training (Programme d’Appui à l’Education et à la Formation)
  • PAN/ETP - National Plan for Education for All (Plan d’Action de l’Education pour Tous)
  • PARSET - Support Programme for the Education Sector (Programme d’Appui à la Réforme du Secteur de l’Education au Tchad)




Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
Publication Date: 2014-12-11
Validated by: Ministry of National Education



page date 2014-12-19

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