World TVET Database - Country Profiles

As of April 2017, a number of updated Country TVET Profiles will be available in a new and more user friendly format with some new features (for example, statistical information).

Azerbaijan

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Azerbaijan
published: 2013-10-28

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET strategy

Many of features of the TVET system in Azerbaijan were inherited by the former Soviet Union. Recent, developments in the country have led to a mismatch between the need for a qualified workforce for the newly emerging economy and the actual availability of such. According to the TVET department of the Ministry of Education (MoE) the current development priorities for the TVET system are identified as follows:

  • creating a strategy for the development of stronger relations between employers and educational organizations, as well as for the development of social partnerships;
  • establishing a coordinating council to regulate the relationship between business and education system, which will include representatives from government, non-governmental agencies and businesses;
  • supporting initiatives for the development and establishment of specialized institutions for the re-training and upgrading of the labour force in accordance with changing labour market needs including support to existing TVET providers;
  • creating a legal framework aimed at activating the participation of employers in the process of training;
  • creating a National Qualifications Framework(NQF) to support the accreditation and certification of qualifications; and
  • establishing and supporting bodies which can represent the qualification needs including representatives from the World of Work and in particular from economic sectors.
TVET legislation

In September 2009, a new Law of Education was adopted. It provides a comprehensive framework for educational policies in Azerbaijan, outlines general principles, educational standards, structures and quality assurance principles of the education system, objectives and principles for sub-sectors including general education, initial vocational education, secondary specialized vocational education, higher education and continuing education and training. The Law on Education foresees the creation of separate laws for initial vocational education, secondary specialized education and adult learning.

Other important regulatory documents are the following:

  • State programme for developing a system of vocational education in the Republic of Azerbaijan (2007-2012), which aims at optimising the network of TVET institutions mainly by updating and modernising the infrastructure;
  • Action plan for the execution of obligations defined in the Development Concept of TVET in the Republic of Azerbaijan (2007-2012);
  • Employment strategy of the Republic of Azerbaijan (2006-2015) adopted in 2005. The strategy sets out priorities with regard to the development of vocational training in accordance with requirements of the labour market;
  • The State Programme on Implementation of the Employment Strategy of the Republic of Azerbaijan was approved by the Presidential Decree No. 2167 in May 2007; and
  • Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan on employment and organization of vocational education of citizens seeking jobs. This law provides for free vocational training and re-training for unemployed and job-seekers and is guaranteed by the State.
Sources:

  • DVV International (2008). Vocational Education and Training in the South Caucasus: On the Road from Survival to Efficient Functioning of National Systems. Bonn: DVV International.
  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Azerbaijan. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • Ministry of Education (2007). Action plan for the execution of obligations defined in the Development Concept of technical and vocational education in the Republic of Azerbaijan (2007-2012). Accessed: 15 February 2012.


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    2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from Education and Culture DG (2010). Study on teacher Education for Primary and Secondary Education Six Eastern Partnership Countries Annex 2 Azerbaijan.

Formal TVET system

Initial vocational education is an integral part of the secondary level of Azerbaijan’s education system. Upon completion of basic secondary education, pupils may opt for specialized secondary education and enter vocational lyceums or vocational schools. Programmes offered by these institutions last for 3 to 4 years. A student may also choose secondary specialized institutions (technikum or college), where the programme takes 1 to 2 years. Technikum or colleges may also be entered upon completion of vocational lyceum or vocational school.

Vocational lyceums and technikum offer specialized and general education, whereas vocational schools offer solely specialized courses.

Commercial and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are allowed to establish secondary vocational education institutions. However, the majority of secondary vocational education institutions are governed by the Ministry of Education (MoE), the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Ministries of Healthcare, the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of Population (MLSPP).

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

The informal education system of Azerbaijan can be divided into two categories:

  • system of vocational training for the unemployed;
  • system of training and retraining of employees of organizations, companies and agencies.
Vocational training for the unemployed is organized by State employment agencies, such as the Central Directorate of Employment, as well as regional and municipal employment centres. Training and re-training of unemployed persons and job-seekers is funded by the State and is free for the participants if they:

  • fail to find a job because they don’t have necessary vocational education;
  • need to acquire new profession because there is no demand for their own profession; and
  • have no opportunity to work by their speciality.
Institutions under the jurisdiction of the employment agencies and other vocational education institutions cooperating with them are the providers of vocational training for the unemployed.

On-the-job learning in Azerbaijan is normally conducted in the form of informal apprenticeship which seems to be the main pathway for skills development. Students who have opted to specialize in a certain profession by pursuing the TVET track usually find themselves unable to find employment in their specialization upon graduation. Those who enter into paid employment start off from the lowest position within the company and are learning on the job. Employers overall are relying on their own informal training practices.

Sources:

  • DVV International (2008). Vocational Education and Training in the South Caucasus: On the Road from Survival to Efficient Functioning of National Systems. Bonn: DVV International.
  • Education and Culture DG (2010). Study on teacher Education for Primary and Secondary Education Six Eastern Partnership Countries Annex 2 Azerbaijan. Brussels: European Union. Accessed: 15 February 2012.
  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Azerbaijan. Turin: European Training Foundation.


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3. Governance and financing

Governance

The Ministry of Education (MoE) together with the Cabinet of Ministers are the main governing bodies of the education system in Azerbaijan. The MoE:

  • establishes, restructures and closes TVET institutions;
  • approves the list of qualifications, education regulations and rules;
  • makes proposals on the development of the budget and funds for the development of education;
  • defines state standards for education funding; and
  • regulates scholarship and salary payment.
The MoE and local administrations share managerial control over the TVET system in Azerbaijan. A TVET department exists under the authority of the MoE. However, it remains very small and its capacities for real reforms are very limited.

Other Ministries that have jurisdiction over several vocational education institutions are:

  • the Ministry of Healthcare;
  • the Ministry of Agriculture;
  • the Ministry of Culture;
  • the Ministry of Sports and Youth Affairs;
  • the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of Population (MLSPP); and
  • the Ministry of Economic Development.
The Centre for the Development of Vocational Education (CDVET) was established in 2009 as a part of the Institute of Educational Problems. The Centre responds to the increasing importance of TVET on the socio-economic scene of the country. Its aim is to support TVET reform on national level, but it has not been very effective yet due to a limited mandate and staff capacities.

The State Services for Unemployed (SES) play a great role in the training of the unemployed. Provision of training and re-training courses is among their main responsibilities. The SES also organize supplementary training courses, which last for 2 to 3 months and are addressed to turners, milling-machine operators, welders and mechanics.

The Vocational Education and Training (VET) Centres were established in Baku, Geokchay and Nakhichevan by the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the population (MLSPP). The MLSPP is planning to establish one in Ganja. The Centres have been provided by professional modules from the International Labour Organization (ILO). In the frame of the ILO Project Partnerships for Youth Employment in the Commonwealth of Independent States, the ILO will provide technical assistance to the MLSPP in launching TVET programmes in Geokchay and Baku Centres. The MLSPP will use a potential of the Master Trainer (local expert) on SIYB (Start and Improve Your Business) trained before by the ILO. There is a clear vision that these activities should be implemented in coordination between the MLSPP and the MoE with involvement of the relevant state agencies.

Inclusion of employers and social partners in the governance of the TVET system remains very limited but has been discussed more frequently. It is planned to involve more participants of the TVET system in the decision-making processes within the field.

Financing

TVET institutions in Azerbaijan are financed by the State. Initial TVET relies completely on state financing, whereas TVET colleges are able to attract funding from other sources, mainly from fee-paying students and external donors.

The amount allocated by state budget to the vocational education institutions has increased from 1,3% - 1,6% of the state budget between 2004 and 2009. Allocation of state funds for the improvement of logistical support of TVET institutions started only in 2008. Prior to that, no funds were allocated, leaving most of the institutions with outdated and poorly functioning infrastructure.

Sources:

  • DVV International (2008). Vocational Education and Training in the South Caucasus: On the Road from Survival to Efficient Functioning of National Systems. Bonn: DVV International.
  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Azerbaijan. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Azerbaijan. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    4. TVET teachers and trainers

In-service teacher education is provided by Universities and Teacher Training Colleges. Despite the efforts of the Ministry of Education (MoE) to restructure teacher training and certification methods, a large number of teachers are considered unqualified and under-qualified. More efforts have been put into the development of other parts of the educational system, leaving teacher education and training without the essential changes that are very much needed.

Most of the current TVET teachers and trainers lack the necessary knowledge and qualifications to be able to provide up-to-date education based on recent developments in the field they teach.

Teacher salaries are very low, and this discourages young people from entering the profession and has resulted in an ageing teaching population. The issue is especially crucial in rural areas where poorly equipped schools and training centres add up to the lack of qualified TVET teaching personnel.

Sources:

  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Azerbaijan. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Azerbaijan. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

Students who have successfully completed programmes offered by vocational schools or lyceums are granted a Diploma of Specialization. Graduates of secondary specialized institutions (technikum or college) who have successfully passed state examinations are awarded a Junior Specialist qualification.

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

Existing TVET qualifications are outdated. Qualifications are derived from current state education standards that are based on the Republican Classification of Worker Occupations and Common Tariff Qualifications Reference book. This document determines the structure for the classification of specializations in vocational education and was formerly used to assign people to jobs and to determine salaries. Current reforms and international projects are aimed at restructuring this outdated system. The creation of occupational standards based on the ISCO-08 classification and a NQF that is in line with the European one are under development.

Sources:

  • DVV International (2008). Vocational Education and Training in the South Caucasus: On the Road from Survival to Efficient Functioning of National Systems. Bonn: DVV International.
  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Azerbaijan. Turin: European Training Foundation.


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    6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

The following projects are of importance:

  • The British Council has launched the Skills@Work project mainly aimed at creating space for dialogue between policy makers and employers within industries; developing curriculum and quality assurance and equipping young people with relevant skills for employment;
  • The EU funded a Technical Aid to the Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS) VET project aimed at formulating recommendations for strengthening capacities for policy development and implementation, NQF, more learner-centred approach, staff development, the use of information and communication technologies and the funding for TVET ; and
  • The World Bank together with the National Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of Population (MLSPP) started the work on developing occupational and training standards for certain priority sectors: tourism, food processing, construction and alternative energy;
  • Two centres for the training of the unemployed were opened under the guidance of the Public Employment Services of MLSPP and two more are being planned. With the help of ILO’s Modules of Employable Skills approach, modular short courses were developed in cooperation with the MoE;
  • The Public Employment Services of MLSPP has initiated guidance and counselling activities that are addressed to young people and are supposed to stimulate them to choose specializations with job and career opportunities;
  • TVET centres that function both as schools and adult learning centres are being established. They are created with the support of regional authorities, local stakeholders and private enterprises of the region in question;
  • The MoE’s TVET Department supports schools, enterprises and NGO’s in innovative projects they would like to initiate. A good example is a project on retraining TVET teachers of the TVET school supported by Azersun Food company by showing them new production practices in the food processing sector;
  • A German-Azerbaijani Twinning Co-operation on Initial Vocational Education in the Field of Agriculture has been implemented as a part of European Neighbouring Policy. The project’s aim is to increase the employability of TVET graduates and to contribute to the enhancement of the country’s competitiveness in the non-oil sectors;
  • The Vocational Education Centre of High Technologies was built in Azerbaijan with the help of DEW International Co. (Korea). It will train personnel in the electric, automation, IT, car repair, electronics, and engineering fields;
  • A credit agreement was signed with the World Bank, funds from which are allocated to the preparation of a primary vocational curriculum.
Challenges

Given the constantly evolving socio-economic situation in Azerbaijan, there are a number of challenges facing the national TVET system. These are defined in the State programme for developing a system of vocational education in the Republic of Azerbaijan (2007-2012) as follows:

  • There is a lack of necessary and modern technological equipment and study materials in TVET institutions as well as professional and qualified teaching personnel;
  • Since TVET is seen as the education of last option that is chosen by people from socially weaker groups, the number of students wishing to pursue TVET has been decreasing ;
  • There is insufficient allocation of funds for TVET from the national budget;
  • There is a weak link between TVET programmes and the demands of the national labour market and a lack of a structured and modern system capable of forecasting future training needs.
Other challenges pointed out in the European Training Foundation (ETF) report “Torino process Azerbaijan” can be summarized as:

  • Difficulties in the translation of the reforms recommended by international specialists into concrete measures that are integrated in the national TVET system;
  • a lack of a clear and updated qualifications system that would reflect the needs of the labour market in personnel training;
  • a gap between policy making and implementation is poorly addressed as implementation capacities are limited;
  • The concept of lifelong learning is underdeveloped. In-service training of workers is mainly performed in an informal way within the company; and
  • a lack of trust and confidence from both employers and workers in TVET qualifications, making the skills of the employees not decisive for company growth in the eyes of work-providers.
Sources:

  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Azerbaijan. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • Ministry of Education (2009). Technical and Vocational Education: General Information. Accessed: 14 February 2012.


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    7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

8.59
8.70
8.82
8.94
9.07
9.19
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+1.4 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
4.37 4.22
female male  
4.42 4.28
female male  
4.48 4.35
female male  
4.53 4.41
female male  
4.59 4.48
female male  
4.64 4.54
female male  

50.88 %

50.8 %

50.73 %

50.67 %

50.6 %

50.54 %





GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2006

2007

2008

2009

2010


2 473

3 851

5 575

4 950

5 722




Employment (Million)


total female male
Population

9.19

4.64 4.54
.
Labour Force
47%
Labour Force Rate

47%

45.5%

48.5%

Labour Force

4.32

2.11 (48.9%) 2.21 (51.1%)
Unemployment Rate

6%

5%

7.1%

.
Unemployment
6%
Unemployed

0.26

0.11 (40.2%) 0.16 (60.2%)


Youth Employment (Million)


total youth total female male
Population 9.19 1.81 (19.7%) 0.88 (48.8%) 0.93 (51.2%)
.
Labour Force Rate

35.6%

35%

36.3%

Labour Force 4.32 0.64 (14.9%) 0.31 (48%) 0.34 (52.2%)
Unemployment Rate

14.4%

9.7%

18.8%

.
Unemployed 0.26 0.09 (35.6%) 0.03 (32.3%) 0.06 (67.7%)
Unemployed
youth : total

35.6%

.



Participation in TVET (% of upper secondary)


2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

38%

38%

43%

44%

46%

Average yearly population growth rate 2007 - 2011

+5.26 %

38 37
female male  
40 37
female male  
48 37
female male  
47 42
female male  
49 44
female male  
(ratio 50.7 %) (ratio 51.9 %) (ratio 56.5 %) (ratio 52.8 %) (ratio 52.7 %)





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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions


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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

Further reading

Abbreviations

  • CDVET - Centre for Development of Vocational Education
  • CTVET - Continuing TVET
  • ETF - European Training Foundation
  • ILO - International Labour Organization
  • ITVET - Initial TVET
  • MLSPP - Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of Population
  • MoE - Ministry of Education
  • NGOs - Non-Governmental Organizations
  • NQF - National Qualifications Framework
  • SES - State Services for Unemployed
  • SIYB - Start and Improve Your Business
  • TACIS - Technical Aid to the Commonwealth of Independent States
  • TVET - Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • VET - Vocational Education and Training




    Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
    Publication Date: 2013-10-28
    Validated by: Ms Nigyar Abbaszade, from Azerbaijan Institute of Teachers



page date 2017-02-22

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