World TVET Database - Country Profiles


TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
published: 2012-05-09

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

After being recognized as an independent state in 1991, the Republic of Belarus started a process of economic and social restructuring. Since most of the organizations that are of importance to the successful development of the country were governmental or state-run, the demand of the labour market was mainly based on the needs of those establishments. Therefore, the strategy of improving the national TVET system gives priority to training specialists in accordance with state requirements.

TVET strategy

In recent years the country has been actively represented on the international arena, leading to broader foreign involvement in the national economy. As a result, more advanced technologies and approaches have started to be implemented in local organizations, aggravating the problem of mismatch between the skilled workers in demand and the actual supply. Adjusting the national TVET system to the changing demands of the labour market, taking into consideration opinions and suggestions of employers and social partners in terms of the qualifications of workers and skills acquired during training, has become one of the main goals of the national educational system development.

Among the main directions of TVET development, the following can be distinguished:

  • Increasing attractiveness of TVET, so that it is no longer considered as a choice of poor and academically challenged people;
  • Provision of more financial and social benefits and training to TVET teachers, so that they are more motivated to stay in the profession and provide students with up-to-date and quality information;
  • Introduction of a more efficient resources allocation system and investigation of the possibilities of other (non-public) sources of funding;
  • Development of a qualifications system and educational standards that correspond to the actual situation on the labour market;
  • Development of a Quality Management System (QMS) in accordance with ISO-9001 (family of standards that relates to quality management systems and is designed to help organizations ensure they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders);
  • Provision of innovative technological equipment and study material in line with current developments of the industry in question;
  • Investing in increasing employment opportunities for young TVET graduates;
  • Further development of the retraining system where workers with outdated qualifications can be retrained and gain skills more in demand on the labour market; and
  • Increase of international involvement in TVET development projects.
TVET legislation

A number of laws and regulations form the legislative framework of TVET in the Republic of Belarus, such as:

  • The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus (guarantees access to free general secondary and technical and vocational education).
  • The Code of Education of the Republic of Belarus (adopted in 2011).
  • State programme on the Development of technical and vocational education for 2011-2015 (approved in 2010).
  • The Code of Education adopted in 2010 (consists of the following sections: technical and vocational education, secondary special education, higher education and further adult education; aims at creating a stronger link between education levels and sets up a common development strategy).
  • The Law on Technical and Vocational Education adopted in 2003, amended in 2009 (defines normative, organizational, economic and social basis of TVET).
  • Act on labour force demand forecasting adopted in 2008 (improves planning of training for employees and specialists financed from national and/or local funds).
  • Draft programme for the development of innovative education 2008-2010 in the perspective of 2015 (issued in 2007).
  • Regulation of in-service training for students of TVET institutions.
  • Law on Initial Technical and Vocation Training (adopted in 2004).
  • The Law on Education adopted in 1991 (Articles 14-23 define structure of the system and the position of TVET in it; Articles 36-37 define funding mechanism for educational system).

  • Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus (2010). National Programme of the development of technical and professional education for 2011-2015. Minsk: Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus.
  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Belarus. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Belarus. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Belarus. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

Formal TVET system

Upon graduating from basic school that lasts for 5 years, students may choose from two tracks:

  • Training at vocational-technical or specialized secondary education establishments; and
  • General secondary education in general education establishments
Duration of programmes depend on the type of vocational school. Vocational-technical schools provide 1-, 2- or 3-year programmes, whereas Professional lyceums offer 3-year programmes. Vocational and Technical Colleges have 3- to 4- or 2-to 3-year programmes depending on the level of previously obtained education.

Programmes provided by Vocational and Technical Education Establishments (VTEE) are aimed at training industrial workers competent in a range of related trades.

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

In addition, technical secondary schools and colleges offer specialized secondary education (SSE) which is a part of continuous education system. SSE is currently undergoing some reforms which are aimed at the development of new subjects, branches and qualifications. The creation of institutions that would offer vocational-technical, specialized secondary and higher education programmes is a project of future development.

At the moment, higher technical schools offer training in e.g. business studies, banking, environmental studies, biochemical production, design, and social work.


  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Belarus. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Belarus. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

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    3. Governance and financing


National TVET is managed by the President of the Republic of Belarus, its Government, Ministry of Education (MoE), other republican institutions of state governance and other state organizations under the authority of the Government, local executive and administrative institutions.

For the most part, departments subordinate to the MoE, together with the Council of Ministers, are the ones involved in TVET policy making and implementation. The ME also consults governmental and non-governmental bodies, national corporations, banks and private funds in matters related to the development of educational projects and setting up priorities in education.

Main organizations under the governance of the MoE that contribute to the development of social partnership in TVET are: the Council on Staff Further Training and Retraining, the Coordination Committee on Technical and Vocational Training and the Inter-Agency Board for Secondary Special Training.

TVET institutions are under the supervision of regional administrations. Regional authorities are responsible for TVET property and financial resources. In their management of TVET system, regional authorities are in charge of vocational education policy development and selection of priorities and areas for qualitative changes. They also participate in the elaboration of national standards and supporting toolkits.

The MoE and Ministry of Labour and Social Protection collaborate on the provision of continuing TVET for working population and training for unemployed people. The State Unemployment Promotion Fund is the main financing source for this type of TVET.


The financing of public TVET institutions mainly comes from regional budgets and some part is financed from the national budget.

Extra-budgetary activities undertaken by TVET institutions that are regulated by the government have been getting more attention in the past years. They are conducted in order to compensate for the lack of budgetary funds. TVET institutions receive additional funding for goods, works and services provided.

The MoE has adopted new regulations that provide for fee-based education services at all levels of vocational education. TVET institutions receive funding for advanced learning and in-depth studies of subjects; training at the secondary special education level in Technical and Vocational Colleges; training, retraining and further training of employees at a cost to citizens.


  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Belarus. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • Republic Portal on Vocational Education (2011). Activity profile and internal organization of the Republican Institute for Vocational Education. Accessed: 14 December 2011.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Belarus. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

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    4. TVET teachers and trainers

Teachers for technical and vocational secondary education are educated in Industrial-Pedagogical colleges and universities. In order to be admitted, a student should hold a competitive examination and should have completed technical and vocational or secondary school. Upon completion, a student is granted the qualification of a Teacher or a Master of Industrial Training. Psychological aspects of teaching are given a lot of attention in the curricula of teacher training.

Regulations on post-diploma training of senior staff have been improved. More attention is given to retraining teachers in technical and vocational education in market-oriented subjects.

The Republican Institute for Vocational Education was established with the purpose of focusing on specific areas of education, improving the provision of scientific and methodological materials in those areas, and providing training and advanced training of teachers and educationalists.


  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Belarus. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Belarus. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

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    5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

With a certificate of a completion of basic school a student may apply to vocational education programmes. Upon completion of a 1- to 2-year programme in a vocational-technical school a student is granted a certificate of professional qualification, whereas a 3-year course at the same educational establishment leads to a Diploma of vocational training and general secondary education.

Middle-level specialist qualifications are awarded upon completion of a 3- to 4-year programme in Vocational and Technical Colleges.

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

State classifier of the Republic of Belarus “Specializations and qualifications” (as cited in ETF, 2011) contains a table of systematic directory of specializations and qualifications of technical and vocational education. Training of qualified labour force in TVET institutions is conducted in accordance with the directory.

Since the content of the TVET system is going through changes based on developments in the structure of national economy, new qualifications are being introduced with the involvement of employers and social partners.

Quality assurance

According to the Law on Education of the Republic of Belarus educational institutions are a subject to state accreditation. The procedure involves control of content and quality of education provided by these institutions; and the correspondence of level of education attained by the graduates with the educational standards. Accredited institutions are entitled to issue diplomas and certificates of education.

Based on the results of attestation - a process that establishes compliance of educational institution with the relevant laws and legislation - the decision to grant, deny or withdraw accreditation is made by competent authorities that are assigned by the President of the Republic of Belarus.

In vocational education programmes the process of accreditation is focused on such aspects as modernization of curricula and equipment and the upgrading of teacher and trainers’ skills as the main factors ensuring quality in vocational education and training.

Apart from the outside quality control procedure, the Law on Education also states self-assessment as a mean to ensure the provision of quality education. Self-assessment is conducted by an educational institution itself in accordance with the regulations prescribed by the Ministry of Education. It takes the form of complex analysis of educational activities based on self-evaluation of the institution in question. The head of the educational institution is in charge of establishing order and frequency of self-assessment.

Department of Education Quality Control of the Ministry of Education is the authority responsible for the control over the quality of education.

The criteria and methodology of quality control are based on educational standards. The latter contain general requirements concerning the levels of education, the duration of the education cycles at each level, types of institutions, specialities, qualifications and professions, and format of certificates and diplomas of education.


  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Belarus. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Belarus. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
  • Webpage information portal on the system the system of higher education. Accessed: 09 May 2012.
  • Republic Portal on Vocational Education (2011). Activity profile and internal organization of the Republican Institute for Vocational Education. Accessed: 14 December 2011.

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    6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

One of the initiatives of the education sector was a project that would connect specialist training to the needs of the national economy. In the framework of this project, the MoE has introduced an application system that enables enterprises to receive qualified employees by concluding an agreement with or applying to vocational schools in advance. This approach helps to arrange the number of students in training in vocational schools in line with demand.

Another issue addressed by the M0E is improvement of adult training and retraining in working professions within state vocational schools.

TVET institutions are giving more attention to strengthening the cooperation with enterprises. Their actions are directed at anticipating the demands of the enterprises with regard to skilled workers, arranging in-service practice and training, retraining and providing further training within departments of educational institutions, developing educational standards and attracting funding from enterprises.

The Law on Technical and Vocational Education has introduced a possibility for employees to initiate proposals for changes in the list of occupations. Within the framework of the Law a great number of educational standards; training programmes; thematic plans and curricula have been developed with the help of employers, institutions and social partners.

One of the crucial problems resulting in poor flexibility of TVET system in its response to the labour market is insufficient budgetary financing. Enterprises themselves show little interest in providing funding to TVET institutions that are supposed to train qualified workers for those enterprises. They also do not bear enough responsibility for the failure to respect the agreements for staff training in TVET Institutions. In this context, the Republican Institute for Vocational Education (RIPO) is conducting studies investigating employers’ requirements for employees and their competences. The Institute is trying to involve more interested organizations, educational and governmental institutions in the process.

Another approach that is still used by the government and is in place since the Soviet times is geographical job placement. A graduate is allocated to an enterprise that has a training agreement with a government-financed TVET institution.

Legislative, regulatory and institutional frameworks are in place that provide for short-term courses in continuous TVET (CTVET).

Since innovation in TVET has also been pointed out as one of the main priorities, the National Programme for Innovation Education Development has been developed, providing for material and technical infrastructure of educational institutions.

The Coordination Committee on Vocational Education and the Council of Staff Further Training and Retraining operating under the Ministry of Education have been engaged in involving representatives of national economic and social sectors in working on vocational qualification framework for TVET institutions.


The main challenges for TVET in Belarus and plans to address them are highlighted in the National Development Programme of Technical and Professional Education for 2011-2015. The programme provides for qualitative and quantitative goals to be achieved and funds allocated from different budget sources. The implementation of the programme is a high priority for the government.


  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Belarus. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Belarus. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

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    7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)



Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

-0.47 %

For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
5.24 4.59
female male  
5.13 4.46
female male  

53.31 %

53.5 %

Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision

GDP per capita (currency: US$)







3 090

3 798

4 667

6 328

5 183

5 765

Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on World Bank Database

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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions

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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations


Further reading

  • House of Representatives, Council of the Republic (2003). Закон Республики Беларусь о профессионально-техническом образовании (Law of the Republic of Belarus on technical and vocational education). Minsk: Council of the Republic.
  • House of Representatives, Council of the Republic (2011). Кодекс Республики Беларусь об образовании (Code on Education of the Republic of Belarus). Minsk: Council of the Republic.
  • Webpage of methodological support of professional education. Specializations and Qualifications of Vocational and Technical Education.

  • CTVET - Continuing TVET
  • ITVET - Initial TVET
  • LLL - Lifelong learning
  • MoE - Ministry of Education
  • NQF - National Qualifications Framework
  • QMS - Quality Management System
  • SSE - Specialized Secondary Education
  • TVET - Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • VTEE - Vocational and Technical Education Establishments

    Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
    Publication Date: 2012-05-09
    Validated by: Republican Institute for Vocational Education (RIPO)

page date 2017-05-05

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