World TVET Database - Country Profiles

As of April 2017, a number of updated Country TVET Profiles will be available in a new and more user friendly format with some new features (for example, statistical information).

Brazil

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Brazil
published: 2013-10-02

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

According to Brazils’ National Education Plan approved by the president of the country in 2001 the goals of TVET are:

  • Continuously revise and adjust vocational education to the demands of a national and regional development policy, in accordance with the demands of the labour market and in collaboration with businessmen and workers in the schools and at all levels of government;
  • Mobilize, link and expand the vocational training system so as to triple, every five years, the coverage of continuous vocational training for people in the productive age bracket who need to adjust and readjust to the new demands and perspectives of the labour market;
  • Establish partnerships between the federal, state and municipal systems and the private initiative to expand and encourage vocational training coverage; and
  • Stimulate, in a continuous way, the use of public and private structures, not only for regular courses, and also for the training and retraining of workers, in order to introduce them in the labour market, and provide them with competitiveness and productivity conditions, thus fostering a raise in their educational, technical and income levels.
TVET legislation

Changes in Brazilian education system and its new features are contained in the National Education Guidelines and Framework Law (Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação) approved in 1996. The Law assigns 3 main objectives to secondary education, one of which is preparing youth for employment, with the goal of producing flexible learners, capable of adapting to changes in the labour market in an increasingly global economy. It also organizes secondary education in two levels: basic and higher secondary education. It integrates vocational education within these levels and allows the provision of skills training in secondary schools or in partnership with technical colleges.

Decree No 2.208 of 1997 created additional provisions for vocational training and made the diverse training modalities more flexible. According to the Decree vocational training is a process linked to education, work, science and technology that promotes continuing development of capacities throughout a productive life. The Decree establishes three levels of vocational training:

  • Basic training that is provided through non-formal education and designed to prepare or retrain workers based on to their prior level of education to provide them with better opportunities on the labour market;
  • Technical training that is organized independently from general secondary education and offered in parallel or sequentially to it;
  • Technological training at post-secondary level that covers all economic sectors.
Source:

  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Brazil. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
  • INEP (2001). The National Education Plan- Brazil. Brasilia: INEP.


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    2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from OECD (2010). Brazil: Encouraging Lessons from a Large Federal System. Paris: OECD.

Formal TVET system

Vocational and technical education is offered in parallel and in conjunction with general secondary/high school education. The Ministry of Education supports a network of vocational education schools that offer programmes aimed at fulfilling the need for vocational training in the areas of services, industry and agriculture.

The TVET track of secondary/high school education lasts for 3-4 years, where each course has a different workload:

  • Primary sector technicians have a workload of a minimum of 2900 hours of which at least 1200 should be vocational courses, complemented by practical skills work; and
  • Secondary sector technicians have a workload of a minimum of 2900 hours of which at least 1200 should be vocational courses, complemented by practical training;
  • Tertiary sector technicians with a minimum workload of 2200 hours of which at least 900 should be vocational courses.
It is normal for vocational schools to establish partnerships with businesses and enterprises and as a result create internship opportunities for students. Schools offer refresher courses and further education for employees.

Apprenticeship

Young people of 14-24 years of age who have concluded or are undertaking secondary/high school education can apply for apprenticeship scheme where they have a chance to get professional experience together with receiving a professional qualification offered by an educational institution that has established an agreement with the company. Apprentices are allowed to work not more than 6 hours per day. This is due to the fact that those who have not completed secondary/high school education should have the opportunity to attend classes. Apprentices with completed secondary education are allowed to work 8 hours as long as they dedicate certain hours to theoretical courses. The latter are offered by schools of the System S, technical schools or officially registered NGO’s. The maximum duration of the apprenticeship is 2 years as long as the apprentice is not older than 24.

Higher education

Higher level training for different professions is mainly offered by non-university institutions. The duration of a programmes leading to a professional degree is usually 3 years. Those interested in pursuing TVET can do so in any of the 38 Federal Institutions for Education, Science and Technology located in all the states of the country. As of December 2008 these institutes included:

  • 31 Federal Centres for Technological Education (CEFET);
  • 75 Decentralized Teaching Units (Uneds);
  • 39 agro-technical schools;
  • 7 Federal Technical Schools; and
  • 8 schools linked to universities; and a Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR).
Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Federal Institutions for Education, Science and Technology train professionals in the several sectors of Brazilian economy; foster research; and develop new products and services in cooperation with the production sector by providing secondary and higher technical courses, undergraduate degrees, master and doctoral programmes.

Internship

Doing an internship is another opportunity for students of technical courses or for those pursuing higher education to get professional experience. According to the Law 11.788/2008 internship is defined as the act of education taking place in the working environment with the scope of introducing students to the world of work. Internships are offered by public and private companies, public organisations, non-profit organisations, or individual entrepreneurs. An intern has to be supervised by an appointed professional. Some TVET courses have internship as a compulsory part of their curriculum. An intern is not considered to be an employee of the organisation, but can be entitled to some form of compensation (travelling expenses) or a monthly allowance.

Sources:

  • Nuffic (2011). Country Module- Brazil. The Hague: Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education.
  • OECD (2010). Brazil: Encouraging Lessons from a Large Federal System. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Accessed: 01 October 2013.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Brazil. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
  • Webpage of Portal Brasil of the Government of Brazil. Accessed: 01 October 2013.
  • Webpage of the network of institutions of the Government of Brazil. Accessed: 01 October 2013.


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    3. Governance and financing

Governance

Brazil consists of 26 states, over 5500 municipalities and a Federal District in which the capital city, Brasilia, is located. The public TVET is administered and managed by the Federal Government and the States. The private sector can be involved at any educational level given the approval and evaluation of the government.

Overall the Ministry of Education in cooperation with the National Council for Education is in charge of establishing National Education Plans; providing technical and financial assistance to the states, federal district and municipalities* for development of their respective school systems.

The Ministry also supports a network of federal schools, comprising universities, institutions of higher education, technical and agro-technical schools and technological education centres.

There are a number of departments (secretariats) under the authority of the Ministry of Education, one of which is the Department of Technical and Vocational Education. These Department of Education in each state has the responsibility of administering the network of schools belonging to those states and supervising the network of private education providers.

The Ministry of Education works together with the Ministry of Labour in order to define vocational training policy, which is executed by technical and agro-technical schools; Federal Centres for Technological Education (CEFET); and System S, a group of institutions financed by means of levies paid by participating companies each belonging to different category and therefore contributing to a respective institution.

Organisations that are a part of the system are:

  • SENAC- National Service for Commercial Training (Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem Comercial);
  • SESC- National Service for Business Training (Serviço Social do Comércio);
  • SENAI- National Service for Industrial Training (Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial);
  • SESI- Social Service for the Industry (Serviço Social da Indústria);
  • SENAR- National Service for Rural Training (Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem Rural);
  • SENAT- National Service for Transport Training (Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem do Transporte);
  • SEST- Social Service for the Transport sector (Serviço Social do Transporte);
  • SEBRAE- Brazilian Services for Assistance to Micro and Small Companies (Serviço Brasileiro de Apoio às Micro e Pequenas Empresas); and
  • SESCOOP- National Service for cooperative learning (Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem do Cooperativismo).
In addition, some governmental and non-governmental organisations are also involved in the education system of Brazil, either through special agreements or joint activities for specific goals.

The National Council of the institutions of the Federal Network of Professional Education, Science and Technology (O Conselho Nacional das Instituições da Rede Federal de Educação Profissional, Científica e Tecnológica) (CONIF) gathers all Federal Institutions of Professional Education, Science and Technology of Brazil. CONIF is a forum for discussion, proposing and promoting TVET policies. It develops activities to promote interdisciplinary and inter-institutional studies and projects on TVET, and encourages exchange of information and experiences among federal institutions.

Finance

The education sector is financed from the funds of the public sector (direct and indirect financing) and private sector, where fees are charged for educational services provided.

Sources:

  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Brazil. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
  • Webpage of Portal Brasil of the Government of Brazil. Accessed: 01 October 2013.
  • Webpage of the National Council of the institutions of the Federal Network of Professional Education, Science and Technology. Accessed: 01 October 2013.
  • Webpage of the Teachers’ Union. Accessed: 01 October 2013.


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    4. TVET teachers and trainers

Teachers, including TVET teachers, enter the profession through a range of academic paths, which include:

  • The Magisterio, a secondary-level 4-year programme;
  • The Licenciatura Plena, a 4-year university-based programme; and
  • The Degree in pedagogy, a 4-year university programme.
Until recently in many areas of the country, teachers only had high school education. The 1996 Law of Directives and Bases of National Education mandated that all teachers should have a university qualification. The Law required each state and municipality to establish career paths for teachers.

It raised the educational requirements to become a teacher, and made both pre-and in-service teacher training free.

The quality of teachers remains a major issue and a priority for the Ministry of Education (MEC). MEC works to create standards for a career path based on credentials and a new examination that covers both content and pedagogy. Individual states are using different strategies to address teacher quality. Some are working with federal universities and NGOs to develop effective training for in-service teachers.

In addition, MEC organizes teacher training programmes to fill the gap in qualified school teachers in certain disciplines and locations. These programmes include theory and practice with focus on teaching methodology. The length of a programme should be at least 540 hours.

Source:

  • Ministry of State for Education and Sport (1997). The National Council of Education, in view of the provisions of Articles 13 and 19 of the Rules and Opinion No 4/97. Brasilia: The Government of Brazil. Accessed: 01 October 2013.
  • OECD (2010). Brazil: Encouraging Lessons from a Large Federal System. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Accessed: 01 October 2013.
  • World Bank (2001). Brazil Teachers Development and Incentives; A Strategic Framework. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.


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    5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

After completing secondary vocational education graduates are awarded the certificate/professional qualification of Middle-level technician (Técnico de nível médio) or a Diploma with specialisation i (Diploma de Ensino Médio com Habilitação .).

Post-secondary vocational education

These qualifications grant access to the entrance examination for higher education and to post-secondary vocational courses called higher courses of technology (cursos superiores de tecnologia). At the end of these courses students are awarded a certificate with professional qualification of a Technologist (Tecnólogo). This certificate also allows students to proceed to a 1-year professional graduate programme (Mestrado Profissional).

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

Brazil has not established a national qualifications framework.

Quality assurance

The National Institute for Educational Studies Anisio Teixeira (Inep) is a federal agency under the Ministry of Education (MEC), whose mission is to promote studies, research and reviews of the Brazilian educational system in order to support the formulation and implementation of public policies for education from the parameters of quality and equity, as well as produce clear and reliable information to managers, researchers, educators and the general public.

Inep realizes examinations that besides diagnosing the Brazilian basic education possible means to ensure as much knowledge acquired in school settings as extracurricular. The National Examination for the Certification of Skills for Youth and Adults (ENCCEJA) is one of those exams.

ENCCEJA The main objective is to build a national benchmark of education for young people and adults through the assessment of competencies, skills and knowledge acquired in the school process or in the formative processes that develop in family life, human relationships, at work, in the movements social and civil society organisations and cultural manifestations, among others.

Participation in ENCCEJA is voluntary and free of charge, to young people and adults living in Brazil and abroad, including persons deprived of liberty, who were unable to complete their studies at the appropriate age.

Sources:

  • Webpage of National Institute of Educational Studies Teixeira (INEP). Accessed: 01 October 2013.
Nuffic (2011). Country Module- Brazil. The Hague: Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education.


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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

The provision of professional education for young people of low income is directly connected to their insertion in the labour market that is becoming increasingly competitive. The project ProJovem supported by the government of Brazil seeks to provide young people with the necessary education.

ProJovem consists of the following parts:

  • ProJoven Teenager is a programme addressed to young people of 15 to 17 years of age and provides them with socio-educational opportunities in order to insert or keep them in the educational system. The content of the programme comprises teaching the understanding of reality and social issues together with developing general skills such as communication;
  • ProJoven Urban is a programme addressed to young people of 18 to 29 years of age who are literate but have not completed basic education. The course has a duration of 18 months and consists of 3 dimensions: basic education as a part of Educations of Young People and Adults; initial professional education comprising general and specialized technical education; and education for citizen participation;
  • ProJoven Countryside is a programme aimed at teaching its participants “the knowledge of the land”. It is training in agriculture for those who were excluded from formal education and gives them the opportunity to gain a professional qualification. The course lasts 2 years;
  • ProJoven Worker is a programme preparing young people for the world of work and for alternative occupations. Participants should be between 18 and 29 years of age, come from families earning the minimum wage and should be pursuing or completing basic or secondary education. The courses have a duration of 350 hours and lead to a professional qualification.
Sources:

  • Webpage of Portal Brasil of the Government of Brazil. Accessed: 01 October 2013.


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    7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

186.14
188.13
190.00
191.77
193.49
195.21
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+0.97 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
94.31 91.83
female male  
95.36 92.77
female male  
96.35 93.65
female male  
97.28 94.48
female male  
98.20 98.20
female male  
99.11 96.10
female male  

50.67 %

50.69 %

50.71 %

50.73 %

50 %

50.77 %



Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision

GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012


4 739

5 788

7 194

8 623

8 373

10 978

12 576

11 340


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC base on World Bank database of World Development Indicators and Global Development Finance

Employment (Million)


total female male
Population

195.21

99.11 96.10
.
Labour Force
51.1%
Labour Force Rate

51.1%

44.3%

58%

Labour Force

99.68

43.93 (44.1%) 55.76 (55.9%)
Unemployment Rate

8.3%

11%

6.1%

.
Unemployment
8.3%
Unemployed

8.25

4.84 (58.6%) 3.41 (41.4%)


Youth Employment (Million)


total youth total female male
Population 195.21 33.43 (17.1%) 16.83 (50.3%) 16.81 (50.3%)
.
Labour Force Rate

62.7%

53.3%

71.3%

Labour Force 99.68 20.96 (21%) 8.98 (42.8%) 11.99 (57.2%)
Unemployment Rate

17.8%

23.1%

13.9%

.
Unemployed 8.25 3.74 (45.3%) 2.08 (55.5%) 1.66 (44.5%)
Unemployed
youth : total

45.3%

.

Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC base on ILO: Key indicators of the labour market


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions

References

Abbreviations

  • CONIF - National Council of the institutions of the Federal Network of Professional Education, Science and Technology (O Conselho Nacional das Instituições da Rede Federal de Educação Profissional, Científica e Tecnológica)
  • ENCCEJA - National Examination for the Certification of Skills for Youth and Adults
  • Inep - National Institute for Educational Studies Anisio Teixeira
  • MEC - Ministry of Education
  • SEBRAE - Brazilian Services for Assistance to Micro and Small Companies (Serviço Brasileiro de Apoio às Micro e Pequenas Empresas)
  • SENAC - National Service for Commercial Training (Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem Comercial)
  • SENAI - National Service for Industrial Training (Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial)
  • SENAR - National Service for Rural Training (Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem Rural)
  • SENAT - National Service for Transport Training (Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem do Transporte)
  • SESC - National Service for Business Training (Serviço Social do Comércio)
  • SESCOOP - National Service for cooperative learning (Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem do Cooperativismo)
  • SESI - Social Service for the Industry (Serviço Social da Indústria)
  • SEST - Social Service for the Transport sector (Serviço Social do Transporte)
  • TVET - Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • Uneds - Decentralized Teaching Units
  • UTFPR - Federal University of Technology – Paraná




    Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
    Publication Date: 2013-10-02
    Validated by: Ms Sonia Ana Leszczynski;
    Head of Education;
    Federal Technological University of Paraná - UTFPR;
    BRAZIL



page date 2017-02-22

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