World TVET Database - Country Profiles

Cameroon

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Cameroon
published: 2015-10-26

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

TVET, known in Cameroon as l’enseignement et la formation techniques et professionnels (EFTP), aims to create a trained workforce for various employment sectors and increase understanding of technology. TVET programmes also intend to allow individuals to fully participate in society as responsible citizens.

TVET strategy

The promotion of TVET is supported by a number of strategies and policies as follows:

The Education Plan 2013-2020 is a study on the development and improvements in the field of TVET in Cameroon. The Plan, amongst other things, calls for the expansion of TVET and the diversification of TVET programmes.

The Vocational Education Strategy 2008 was validated by the Ministry of Employment and Vocational Education (Ministère de l’Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle) (MINEFOP) in 2008. The strategy defines vocational education as the attaining of professional training qualifications in extracurricular training centres, non-formal learning environments as well as vocational training programmes, for example apprenticeships. The strategy recognises vocational education as a pathway to normal and accelerated socio-professional integration and wages. The strategy proposes to improve TVET programmes by centralising vocational education activities under the supervision of MINEFOP.

The Education Sector Strategy Plan 2006-2012 aimed to improve the education system by increasing the education financial budget and investing in TVET programmes amongst others programmes. The strategy stressed the importance of TVET by recognising vocational education as a means to professionalise the Cameroonian education system. The strategy aimed to:

  • Develop vocational education programmes in order to improve the quality of training, workplace productivity, and limit student drop outs (for example, 50% of primary, secondary and higher education drop outs were planned to be orientated towards TVET);
  • Make TVET socially acceptable and financially feasible;
  • Introduce vocational training as a post-primary education alternative.
The National Education Plan Education For All (Plan d’Action National de l’Education Pour Tous 2002 (PLAN-EPT)) seeks to address TVET by promoting equal access for youth and adults to training programmes.

TVET legislation

  • The Law of Educational Orientation (1998) makes the education system a major national priority and establishes bilingualism at all levels of the educational system as a uniting factor and national integration strategy. The law also institutes a general judicial framework for the Cameroon educational system. The law introduces TVET programmes for post-primary education.
  • Education General Assembly (1996) established a new education policy in Cameroon. The Assembly focused on, amongst others, decentralising education, organisation and administration, finance and partnership, and the training of both government and private education staff.
Sources:

  • French Development Agency (2009). The new vocational education training schemes for post-primary education. Accessed: 20 June 2014.
  • Republic of Cameroon (2006). Education Sector Strategy Document. Yaoundé: Republic of Cameroon. Accessed: 17 June 2014.
  • Republic of Cameroon (2015). Education Sector Strategy 2013-2020. Yaoundé: Republic of Cameroon. Accessed: 17 June 2014.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education, VII Ed. 2010/11. Republic of Cameroon. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE. Accessed: 17 June 2014.
  • UNESCO-IIEP (2003). National Education Plan Education For All. Accessed: 17 June 2014.


    Back to top

    2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from Republic of Cameroon (2006). Education Sector Strategy Document. Yaoundé: Republic of Cameroon.

The education system in Cameroon has two sub-systems, the British and French sub-system, and the languages of instruction are accordingly English and French.

  • The British education system: Upon completion of 7 years of primary education, students continue to a secondary education programme that completes 14 years of education. Students finish a 5 year lower secondary education programme (Ordinary level) before completing a 2 year upper secondary education programme (Advanced level).
  • The French education system: Following 6 years of primary education, students proceed to a secondary education programme that completes 13 years of education. Students first complete a 4 year general secondary education programme (Brevet d’études du premier Cycle du Second Degré) before completing a 3 year upper secondary programme (Baccalauréat de l’Enseignement Secondaire).
Formal TVET system

Vocational education and training courses are offered by various colleges as an alternative to the secondary academic education programme mentioned above. TVET programmes are offered in English and French and graduates have access to higher professional training courses at undergraduate and postgraduate levels respectively. Secondary vocational education programmes are structured as follows:

  • The British education system - The British secondary vocational education programme is organised into two cycles. Upon completion of the first cycle which lasts five years, students continue to the second cycle which lasts two years.
  • The French education system - The French secondary vocational education programme is organised into two cycles. Upon completion of the first cycle which lasts four years, students continue to the second cycle which lasts three years.
Vocational and technical education institutes can be classified into three categories: Rural craft, domestic science, and vocational and technical colleges or high schools. Rural craft schools offer two-year courses in carpentry, masonry, pottery, and agriculture for those who may be too old for secondary school.

The qualification obtained after completing higher professional education depends on the programme enrolled in. Below is an overview:

  • First cycle (Premier cycle) programmes lasts for 3 years (2 years nominal plus one extra year).
  • Medicine programmes lasts for 2-3 years.
  • Engineering programme duration varies.
  • Second cycle (Deuxième cycle) programme duration varies.
Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Non-formal TVET programmes are provided by various ministries (Agriculture, Culture, Youth). For example; the Ministry of Youth (Ministère de la Jeunesse) establishes youth training programmes and the Ministry of Agriculture (Ministère de l'Agriculture et du Développement Rural) organises apprenticeships.

Cameroon has a significant informal sector and a great deal of vocational training is done in informal settings, however little of these activities is documented. An example the Groupement Interprofessionnel des Artisans (GIPA), an organisation made up of craftsmen, provides traditional apprenticeship to improve the instructional skills and training levels of its masters.

Sources:

  • Nuffic (2012). Country module - Republic of Cameroon. The Hague: Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education. Accessed: 17 June 2014.
  • Republic of Cameroon (2006). Education Sector Strategy Document. Yaoundé: Republic of Cameroon. Accessed: 17 June 2014.
  • UNESCO-EFA (2012). Building skills in the Informal Sector. Bonn: UNESCO. Accessed: 17 June 2014.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education, VII Ed. 2010/11. Republic of Cameroon. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE. Accessed: 17 June 2014.


    Back to top

    3. Governance and financing

Governance

The Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training (Ministère de l’Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle) (MINEFOP) is responsible for TVET programmes. MINEFOP is composed of a central administration, inspection department, and departmental and regional delegations. Like the whole Cameroonian education system TVET is decentralised at National, Provincial, Divisional, Sub- Divisional, District and Village levels. Department and regional delegations are in charge of the implementation of legislation and the coordination of TVET activities in their areas.

Public structures, under the supervision of MINEFOP, responsible for the dissemination of TVET include:

  • Vocational Training Centres of Excellence (Les Centres de Formation Professionnelle d’Excellence);
  • Sector Vocational Training Centres (Les Centres Sectoriels de Formation Professionnelle);
  • Centres for Training Professionals (Les Centres de Formation aux Métiers);
  • Apprenticeship Centres (Les Centres d’Apprentissage Professionnel);
  • Accelerated Public Vocational Training Centres (Les Centres Publics de Formation Professionnelle Rapide);
  • Rural Artisans of Housekeeping (Les Sections Artisanales Rurales of Sections Ménagères).
The other ministries responsible for education in Cameroon are:

  • the Ministry of Basic Education (Ministère de l’Education de Base) (MINEDUB),
  • the Ministry of Secondary Education (Ministère des Enseignements Secondaires) (MINESEC) and
  • the Ministry of Higher Education (Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur) (MINESUP).
Various governmental organisations and initiatives offer TVET courses. These include:

  • National Network for Jobs in Africa (Réseau National du Programme des Emplois en Afrique) is an initiative to combat unemployment and underemployment by promoting TVET with an emphasis on ICT, and the creation of synergies between national services concerned with employment.
  • The National Employment Fund (Le Fonds National de l’Emploi) which promotes employment by financing on the job training, formal training, self-employment, and other programs based on the requirements of the labour market.
  • The National Observatory of Employment and Vocational Education (L'Observatoire National de l'Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle) (ONEFOP) which is in charge of providing and analysing data concerning employment and vocational training.
•*Integrated Support Programme for the Informal Sector (Programme Intégré d’Appui aux Acteurs du Secteur Informel(PIAASI) which promotes the transformation of the informal sector to the formal sector through supporting TVET and financing.

Grassroots and non-governmental organisations are grouped for example under the Cameroon Education For All network (CEFAN). Setup in 2005 the group aims to be active in education and vocational education programmes, promoting the right to education for all.

Financing

Financing comes from three principle sources:

  • public financing,
  • other sources of national finance, and
  • foreign aid.
The Ministry of Budget and Finance (Ministère de Finance) (MINFI), in collaboration with MINEDUB and MINESEC, is responsible for allocating finances to the education sector including TVET and determines regional allocations. Communities and family members also directly contribute financially to schools and teacher salaries.

Sources:

  • African Economic Outlook (2014). Cameroon. Accessed: 17 June 2014.
  • French Development Agency (2013). AFD and the vocation education system in Cameroon. Accessed: 20 June 2014.
  • Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training (2014). Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training. Accessed: 18 June 2014.
  • Nuffic (2012). Country module - Republic of Cameroon. The Hague: Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education. Accessed: 17 June 2014.
  • Republic of Cameroon (2008). National report on education. Yaoundé: Republic of Cameroon. Accessed: 18 June 2014.
  • World Bank (2012). Cameroon – Governance and Management in the Education Sector. Washington D.C.: World Bank. Accessed: 18 June 2014.


    Back to top

    4. TVET teachers and trainers

TVET teachers and trainers are recruited via two methods. The first mode of recruitment is directly on the basis of degrees and licenses provided by tertiary education institutes. The second mode of recruitment is through Technical Education institutes (l’École normale supérieure de l’enseignement technique) (ENSET). These institutes are dedicated to training TVET teachers. An example of an ENSET institute is the University of Douala. Graduates obtain a degree of professor of technical college (professeur de collège de l’enseignement technique) or professor of technical education high school (professeur de lycée d’enseignement technique) which allows them to teach TVET in Cameroon.

In order to teach TVET, teachers and trainers are required to have: Teacher diploma of technical education first degree (DIPET 1), Diploma of professor of technical college second degree (DIPET 2), or a Teacher’s certificate of technical education (CAPIET).

Sources:

  • World Bank (2012). Cameroon – Governance and Management in the Education Sector. Washington D.C.: World Bank. Accessed: 18 June 2014.


    Back to top

    5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

Due to the two vocational education sub-systems, there are two sets of qualifications that are awarded after secondary vocational education in Cameroon:

Series name/Education system British education system French education system
Qualification awarded General Certificate of Education Technical/Commercial Brevet de Technicien (Technician Certificate), Brevet Professionnel (Professional Certificate), Baccalauréat
Age group 12-19 12-19
Duration of programme 7 years (5 plus 2 years) 7 years (4 plus 3 years)
Post-secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
First cycle (Premier cycle) 3 years (2 years nominal plus one extra year) Brevet de Technicien Supérieur (BTS) (technician), the Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie (university diploma) (DUT) and the Higher National Diploma (HND)
Medicine 2-3 years nominal Diplôme de Technicien Supérieur de la Santé (BTS) (health technician), Diplôme en Soins Infirmiers (nurse)
Engineering Varies Diplôme d’Ingénieur Agronome (agriculture), Diplôme d’Ingénieur des Travaux (site engineer) and the Diplôme d’Ingénieur de Conception (design engineer)
Second cycle (Deuxième cycle) Varies Postgraduate Diploma, Maîtrise Professionnelle (master)
National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

As of today Cameroon has not established a NQF and qualifications are not referenced to an overarching framework.

Quality assurance

The General Inspector of Training (l’Inspecteur General des Formations) is responsible for the quality and efficiency of methods used in TVET education. The inspector, part of the Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training (MINEFOP), is also responsible for the implementation of vocational training standards.

Sources:

  • Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training (2014). The General Inspector of Training. Accessed: 23 June 2014.
  • Nuffic (2012). Country module – Republic of Cameroon. The Hague: Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education. Accessed: 17 June 2014.


    Back to top

    6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

The various ministries responsible for education are committed to an extensive international cooperation and reform programme, whose impact is already visible on the improvement of educational services. Notably significant steps have also been made in TVET. For example according to the World Bank in 2011 145 516 students were enrolled in vocational public secondary education, of whom 53 450 (36%) were girls. This compared to 649 624 students being enrolled in general public secondary education, of whom 289 340 (44%) girls.

Reform projects

Currently the Ministry of Secondary Education (MINESEC) has initiated the Project to Support the Reform of the Teaching of Vocational Education (Projet d'Appui à la réforme de l'Enseignement de la Formation Professionnelle), a four year project which aims to:

  • Create institutional conditions for an effective training system;
  • Improve the link between training and employment.
Other TVET projects include the construction of three vocational education and training centres in the cities of Douala, Limbe, and Sangmélima. Evaluated at 24 billion CFA, the project is financed 72.3% (17 billion CFA) by the Republic of Korea, and 27.7% (7 billion CFA) by the Republic of Cameroon. As part of the project, 104 persons underwent TVET training in the Republic of Korea from September to December 2014.

Another project (C2D-CFM) in collaboration with the French Development Agency intended to run until 2017 aims to train skilled workers, focusing on offering non-agricultural courses in rural areas.

Challenges

According to the French Development Agency some key challenges concerning TVET faced by Cameroon today are to:

  • Improve access to training. Target: increase the number of enrolments to 150,000 by 2015, and have at least one excellent vocational training centre per division;
  • Better integrate the technical and vocational streams into the overall education system;
  • Build or renovate vocational training centres;
  • Strengthen the links between TVET and the labour market;
  • Develop programmes using the skill-based approach;
  • Increase funding of vocational training (either public or private) and find innovative mechanisms to incentivise private investment in vocational training.
Sources:

  • French Development Agency (2009). The new vocational education training schemes for post-primary education. Accessed: 20 June 2014.
  • Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training (2013). Fight against corruption. Accessed: 20 June 2014.
  • Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training (2013). Reform of the SAR/SM. Accessed: 17 June 2014
  • Ministry of Secondary Education (2014). Project to Support the Reform of the Teaching of Vocational Education. Accessed: 18 June 2014.
  • World Bank (2012). Cameroon – Governance and Management in the Education Sector. Washington D.C.: World Bank. Accessed: 18 June 2014.


    Back to top

    7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

20.59
21.12
21.66
22.21
22.77
23.34
Average yearly population growth rate 2010 - 2015

+2.67 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
10.30 10.29
female male  
10.57 10.55
female male  
10.83 10.83
female male  
11.11 11.10
female male  
11.39 11.39
female male  
11.67 11.67
female male  

50.03 %

50.03 %

50.02 %

50.01 %

50.01 %

50 %






Back to top

8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions

References

Abbreviations

  • BTS - Brevet Technicien Supérieur
  • CEFAN - Cameroon Education For All network
  • DUT - Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie
  • EFTP - l’Enseignement et la formation techniques et professionnels
  • ENSET - l’École normale supérieure de l’enseignement technique
  • GIPA - Groupement Interprofessionnel des Artisans
  • MINEDUB - Ministry of Basic Education (Ministère de l’Education de Base)
  • MINEFOP MINEFOP – Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training (Ministère de l’Emploi et la Formation Professionnel)
  • MINESEC -Ministry of Secondary Education (Ministère des Enseignements Secondaires)
  • MINESUP - Ministry of Higher Education (Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur)
  • MINFI - Ministry of Budget and Finance (Ministère de Finance)
  • MINFOPRA - Ministry of Public Service and Administrative Reform (Ministère de la Fonction Publique et de la Réforme Administrative)
  • NQF - National Qualification Framework
  • ONEFOP - L'Observatoire National de l'Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle
  • PIAASI - Programme Intégré d’Appui aux Acteurs du Secteur Informel
  • PLAN-EPT - Plan d’Action National de l’Education Pour Tous




Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
Publication Date: 2015-10-26
Validated by: Technical School of Nkolbisson



page date 2014-12-19

Back to top