World TVET Database - Country Profiles

As of April 2017, a number of updated Country TVET Profiles will be available in a new and more user friendly format with some new features (for example, statistical information).

France

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
France
published: 2015-02-25

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

TVET in France aims to assist youth and adults to attain the qualifications needed for private and public sector employment. TVET, known in France as l’Enseignement et la Formation Techniques et Professionnels (EFTP), is also intended to promote citizenship and to enable individuals to fully engage in social life.

TVET strategy

TVET is supported by Lifelong Learning strategies which call for the development of apprenticeship and vocational training programmes and the endorsing of experience-based informal and non-formal education (validation des acquis d'expérience), amongst other aspects. Lifelong Learning strategies are promoted by a number of Laws (refer to legislative framework).

TVET is also guided by Education and Training in Europe 2020 - a ten year European strategic framework, in which European Union (EU) countries have identified a number of common objectives. Specifically related to TVET, France aims to, for instance;

  • Reduce the number of school drop-outs to less than 9.5%, by improving the education guidance system and
  • Set up networks to allow early school drop outs to re-enter the education and TVET system.
TVET legislation

  • Law for the rebuilding of school (Loi pour la Refondation de l’École) (2013): the Law restructures the TVET system to enable those who drop out of school to obtain the qualifications needed for the workplace. The Law reinforces regionalism and the decentralisation of TVET systems making it possible for regions to define TVET programmes according to regional workforce needs.
  • Law 2009-1437 (2009) lifelong guidance and training (l’orientation et à la formation professionnelle tout au long de la vie): the Law guarantees the right to vocational education (droit individuel de formation) and establishes a personal skills booklet so that throughout an individual’s education, his/her skills can be recorded. The Law establishes the National Council for lifelong vocational training (Conseil national de la formation professionnelle tout au long de la vie), a consultation space for the State, economic partners, labour and management and the regional councils. The law also stresses the importance of acquiring knowledge and key competences (compétences clés) during compulsory schooling.
  • Law 2005-380 (2005) program for the future of school (d’orientation pour l’avenir de l’école): the Law addresses issues such as the reduction of disparities in education quality, development of more individualised education paths, and provision of better knowledge of the labour market.
  • Law 2004-391 (2004) Vocational training throughout life and social dialogue (Formation professionnelle tout au long de la vie et au dialogue social): the Law encourages the modernisation of TVET and specifically entitles all employees to have access to further training. The Law also calls on companies to increase funds for training programmes.
Sources:

  • CEDEFOP Refernet (2008). France VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
  • CEDEFOP Refernet (2012). France VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
  • EURYDIA (2014). Education in the Europe 2020 Strategy. Accessed: 30 June 2014.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. France. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
  • Legifrance (2014). Loi 2004-391. Accessed: 26 January 2015.


    Back to top

    2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from CEDEFOP Refernet (2012). France VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.

Formal TVET system

Upon completion of six years of compulsory primary education, and four years of lower secondary level of education (Collège), pupils can choose between three different educational streams; the general, technological, or vocational stream.

  • The general stream lasts three years and is provided in high schools (Lycée).
  • The Technological stream lasts three years and
  • The Vocational stream lasts either three or four years, depending on the type of qualification attained.
Apprenticeships

Apprenticeships combine on-the-job training in a company and academic courses in the Apprenticeship Training Centre (Centre de formation d’apprentis). Apprentices have specific employment contracts and receive a salary. Apprentices must be between 16-25 years of age and spend between 60 and 75 % of their time in the work place.

TVET at the tertiary level

TVET programmes are taught at the tertiary level in the undergraduate and postgraduate degree cycles. TVET is predominantly provided by universities specialising in TVET, for example in university institutes of technology (institut universitaire de technologie).

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Continuing vocational education (CVT) programmes are available to adults and young people who are no longer part of the TVET educational system but are pursuing or returning to general, vocational or cultural education. CVT programmes fall into one of the two categories: training for job seekers and training for people in employment (employees of private and public sectors and the self-employed).

Training for job seekers is divided into:

  • Training sessions or traineeships and
  • Special work contracts which are available for job seekers who are 26 and older.
Training for people in employment may take the form of:

  • An initiative by the employer as a part of the enterprise’s training plan;
  • An initiative by the employee on a training leave such as Individual Training Leave (Congé individuel de formation (CIF); and
  • An initiative by the negociation between the employer and their employees to grant Individual Training Right (Droit individuel de formation (DIF).
Organisations providing training for employees and job seekers include Groups of National Education Establishments (Les Groupements d’Etablissements (Greta) de l’Éducation Nationale). These establishments include local public schools, which pool their resources to offer training to adults.

Under the Lifelong Learning strategies some forms of informal training, such as independent learning, are recognised and the French TVET system attempts to recognise such programmes in the National Qualification Framework (NQF).

Sources:

  • CEDEFOP Refernet (2012). France VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
  • Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (2014). Les Greta. Accessed: 02 July 2014.
  • Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (2014). The Education System. Accessed: 02 July 2014.
  • Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (2014). Éduscol. Accessed: 02 July 2014.


    Back to top

    3. Governance and financing

Governance

Formal TVET is the responsibility of the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (Ministère de l’Éducation Nationale, de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche). The ministry develops and awards qualifications on behalf of the State. Other ministries involved in the non-formal TVET system are;

  • Ministry of Agriculture (Ministère de l’Agriculture) runs public agriculture education, which is a complete system of education, and training that offers a variety of courses in food and farming, the environment, and veterinary medicine etc.
  • Ministry of Work, Employment and Social Dialogue (Ministère du Travail, de l’Emploi et du Dialogue social) offers professional qualifications that can be acquired through vocational training courses or through accreditation of work experience. The course generally involves an internship in a company.
  • Ministry of Social Affairs and Health (Ministère des Affaires Sociales et de la Santé) awards qualifications that provide access to certain jobs in the paramedical sector.
The Regional Coordinating Committee for Employment and Vocational Training (Comité de Coordination Régionale de l’Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle (CCREFP) helps foster dialogue between different regional actors for better cooperation in terms of policies concerning TVET education and training.

Social Actors

Social partners that play a consultative role in TVET governance include:

  • Professional Consultative Commission (Commission professionnelle consultative (CPC);
  • National Higher Education and Research Council (Conseil national de l’enseignement supérieur et de la recherche (CNESER);
  • Economic and Social Regional Council (Conseil économique et social régional (CESR)
Social partners also play a role in national continuing vocational education (CVT) programmes. Examples of social actors active in CVT include the National Joint Committee for Vocational Training (Comité Paritaire National pour la Formation Professionnelle (CPNFP) and Joint Fund for Professional Career Security (Fonds Paritaire de Sécurisation des Parcours Professionnels (FPSPP).

Financing

Formal TVET programmes are funded by the State as well as by regional administrative units. The State is responsible for the salaries of teachers and other educational and guidance staff and the regional authorities are responsible for investment and operational activities.

Non-formal TVET education is funded by State and private sector funding schemes. Grants are part of a framework called Commitment to Expand Employment and Skills (Engagement de Développement de l’Emploi et des Compétences (EDEC) and is funded by the state and regional budgets.

Sources:

  • CEDEFOP Refernet (2012). France VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.


    Back to top

    4. TVET teachers and trainers

The Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research is responsible for training TVET teachers and trainers. Potential TVET teachers and trainers are required to have an undergraduate degree to join a College for teaching and education (Les Écoles supérieures du Professorat et de l'Éducation (ESPE)). Students attend a one year master programme followed by an end of year exam. Those who succeed proceed to the second year of the master programme and graduates attain a qualification in education and training (Métiers de l’éducation et de la formation). This qualification allows graduates to teach TVET at all education levels in France.

The Ministry of Work, Employment and Social Dialogue (Ministère du Travail, de l’Emploi et du Dialogue social) is responsible for general regulation of teachers and tutors in non-formal TVET programmes. These teachers and trainers are responsible for TVET in public works, personal services, transport, and commercial sectors.

Sources:

  • CEDEFOP Refernet (2012). France VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
  • Webpage of the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research. Accessed: 01 July 2014.
  • Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (2014). ESPÉ. Accessed: 04 July 2014.
  • Ministry of Work, Employment, and Social Affairs (2014). Professional Qualifications. Accessed: 01 July 2014.


    Back to top

    5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Technological stream 3 years Technological Baccalauréat (Baccalauréat technologique)
Vocational stream 3 or 4 years depending on programme Certificate of professional skills (Certificat d’aptitude professionnelle (CAP) after the first two years. Vocational certificate (Brevet professionnel (BP), Arts Profession certificate (Brevet des métiers d’art (BMA), or Technical certificate (Brevet de technicien (BT) after the last two years depending on specialisation. Vocational Baccalaureate (Baccalauréat professionnel) after three years
Post-secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Undergraduate 3 years Advanced technician certificate (Brevet de technicien superieur(BTS) or University technological diploma (Diplôme universitaire de technologie (DUT) after two

years, depending on specialisation. Vocational License (Licence professionnelle) after the last year of undergraduate programme

Postgraduate 2 years Vocational Master (Master professionnel)
National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

All professional qualifications recognised by the State and social partners are registered in the National Register of Vocational Certifications (Répertoire National des Certifications Professionnelles (RNCP). The RNCP is managed by the National Commission for Vocational Certifications (Commission nationale de la certification professionnelle (CNCP). The RNCP includes three categories of certification:

  • Vocational qualifications and degrees awarded on behalf of the State (formal TVET);
  • Certificates of Professional Qualification (Certificat de qualification professionnelle (CQP) awarded by social actors (Non-formal TVET);
  • Other vocational qualifications to be approved by the CNCP (Informal TVET).
CNCP takes into consideration the structure of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) with regard to establishing the different levels of qualifications attained by TVET graduates. TVET qualifications are categorised as follows:

Level Qualification Explanation
EQF Level 3 Certificate of professional skills (Certificat d’aptitude professionnelle (CAP). Vocational certificate (Brevet professionnel (BP) Demonstrates a first level of qualification. Graduates are qualified workers or employees.
EQF Level 4 Vocational Baccalaureate Baccalauréat professionnel) Demonstrates holder’s ability to carry out highly professional activity and offers 70 specialities in a wide range of sectors (retail, services, catering etc.)
EQF Level 5 Advanced technician certificate (Brevet de technicien supérieur (BTS) Qualification provides evidence that holders are capable of working as advanced technicians in industrial or commercial professions.
EQF Level 6 Vocational License (Licence professionnelle) Purpose of vocational degree is immediate entry into work and possibility for further studies.
EQF Level 7 Vocational Master (Master professionnel) Highest level of qualification and demonstrates holder’s competence and capability for advanced vocational and technical employment.
Table extracted from CEDEFOP Refernet (2012). France VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: CEDEFOP

Quality assurance

On the national level TVET quality assurance is carried out by the General Inspectorate of Education (L’Inspection générale de l’Éducation nationale (IGEN). In addition, regional governments monitor and improve TVET quality in their respective regions.

Sources:

  • CEDEFOP Refernet (2012). France VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
  • Webpage of the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research. Accessed: 01 July 2014.


    Back to top

    6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

The government of France is committed to improving the TVET system and is currently reforming aspects of the formal, non-formal, and informal TVET systems. For example the 2014 Law for Rebuilding the School (Loi de Refondation de l’École de la République) aims to:

  • Support students with career guidance and orientation towards TVET programmes;
  • Adjust TVET programmes to the needs of the labour market ;
  • Decentralise the TVET system;
  • Promote TVET programmes for students without qualifications; and
  • Establish a Law to hold the State accountable for enabling all students to pursue their studies until they obtain a CAP qualification.
Although education in France is centralised, recent reforms have allowed regional governments to establish TVET programmes according to the needs of the local labour market. For example, each region develops a Regional Plan for Developing Vocational Training (Plan Régional de Développement de la Formation Professionnelle (PRDFP).

Challenges

According to a 2013 report on vocational education by the General Inspectorate of Education, TVET in France faces a number of important challenges:

  • To increase the number of youth and adults with qualifications;
  • To strengthen cooperation between the TVET system and the labour market and
  • To improve the performance of TVET students to achieve 80% success in the upper secondary level and limit drop-outs at all education levels.
Sources:

  • Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (2014). Law for Rebuilding the School. Accessed: 04 July 2014.
  • Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (2013). Les parcours des élèves de la voie professionnelle. Accessed: 03 July 2014.


    Back to top

    7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

61.45
61.85
62.21
62.55
62.89
63.23
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+0.58 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
31.76 29.68
female male  
31.97 29.88
female male  
32.16 30.05
female male  
32.33 30.23
female male  
32.49 30.40
female male  
32.66 30.58
female male  

51.69 %

51.69 %

51.69 %

51.68 %

51.66 %

51.65 %



Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2012 revision

GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2006

2007

2008

2009

2010


35 457

40 342

43 992

40 488

39 443


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on World Bank database

Employment (Million)


total female male
Population

63.23

32.66 30.58
.
Labour Force
44.6%
Labour Force Rate

44.6%

41.1%

48.3%

Labour Force

28.22

13.44 (47.6%) 14.78 (52.4%)
Unemployment Rate

9.1%

9.4%

8.9%

.
Unemployment
9.1%
Unemployed

2.58

1.26 (48.9%) 1.32 (51.1%)


Youth Employment (Million)


total youth total female male
Population 63.23 7.45 (11.8%) 3.71 (49.8%) 3.74 (50.2%)
.
Labour Force Rate

40.7%

37.5%

43.8%

Labour Force 28.22 3.03 (10.7%) 1.39 (46%) 1.64 (54%)
Unemployment Rate

22.6%

21.6%

228.5%

.
Unemployed 2.58 0.69 (26.6%) 0.30 (43.9%) 3.74 (545.2%)
Unemployed
youth : total

26.6%

.

Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC base on ILO: Key indicators of the labour market

Participation in TVET (% of upper secondary)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

56%

43%

43%

44%

44%

44%

45%

Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2011

-3.27 %

50 62
female male  
37 49
female male  
37 49
female male  
38 50
female male  
38 49
female male  
39 49
female male  
39 50
female male  
(ratio 44.6 %) (ratio 43 %) (ratio 43 %) (ratio 43.2 %) (ratio 43.7 %) (ratio 44.3 %) (ratio 43.8 %)


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Data Centre-beta Country Profiles


Back to top

8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions


Back to top

9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

Abbreviations

  • BMA - Arts Profession certificate (Brevet des métiers arts)
  • BP - Vocational certificate (Brevet professionnel)
  • BT - Technician Certificate (Brevet de technicien)
  • BTS - Advanced technician certificate (Brevet de technicien supérieur)
  • CAP - Vocational Training Certificate (Certificat d’aptitude professionnelle)
  • CCREFP - Regional Coordinating Committee for Employment and Vocational Training (Comité de Coordination Régionale de l’Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle)
  • CESR - Economic and Social Regional Council (Conseil économique et social regional)
  • CFA - Apprentice’s training Centre (Centre de Formation d’Apprentis)
  • CIF - Individual Training Leave (Congé individuel de formation)
  • CNCP - Commission Nationale de la Certification Professionnelle
  • CNESER - National Higher Education and Research Council (Conseil national de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche)
  • CPC - Professional Consultative Commissions (Commission professionnelle consultative)
  • CPNFP - National Joint Committee for Vocational Training (Comité Paritaire National pour la Formation Professionnelle)
  • CVT - Continuing Vocational Training (Formation professionnelle continue)
  • DIF - Individual Training Right (Droit individuel à la formation)
  • DUT - Diplôme universitaire de technologie
  • EDEC - Commitment to expand employment and skills (Engagement de Développement de l’Emploi et des Compétences)
  • EQF - European Qualification Framework
  • EFTP - l’Enseignement et la Formation Techniques et Professionnels
  • EU - European Union (Union européenne)
  • FPSPP - Joint Fund for Professional Career Security (Fonds Paritaire de Sécurisation des Parcours Professionnels)
  • GRETA - National Education Establishments Groups (Groupements d’Établissements de l’Éducation Nationale)
  • IGEN - General Inspectorate of Education (l’Inspection Générale de l’Éducation Nationale)
  • NQF - National Qualification Framework
  • PRDFP - Regional Plan for Developing Vocational Training (Plan Régional de Développement de la Formation Professionnelle)
  • RNCP - National Register of Vocational Certifications (Répertoire National des Certifications Professionnelles)




    Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
    Publication Date: 2015-02-25
    Validated by: National Commission for UNESCO in France



page date 2017-02-22

Back to top