World TVET Database - Country Profiles
|TVET Country Profile|
| 1. TVET mission|
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
7. Statistical information
1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy
In 2006, the Minister of Labour articulated a mission and vision for TVET:
“The vision for the E-TVET sector is to raise the efficiency of the Technical Vocational and Education Training (TVET) sector in accordance with the Government vision to develop Jordan as a knowledge economy to meet the needs of the labour market, to secure the employment of the Jordanian workforce and to contribute to the development of Jordan’s human capital in line with lifelong learning principles.” (Ministry of Labour, 2006)
The National Agenda (2006- 2015) introduced under the leadership of His Majesty King Abdullah II focuses on key economic and social development issues. The latter are addressed in 3 consecutive phases, each with a distinct goal. Overview of the phases is demonstrated in the scheme below:
Scheme extracted from National Agenda 2006 – 2015.
The main aim of Phase I (Employment Opportunities for All) is eradicating structural unemployment and reshaping the skills of the labour force by significantly expanding vocational training and employment support.
The E-TVET Strategy (2005) sets the following targets in TVET for the period 2006 to 2015.
- Adopt a two-pillar approach in planning for employment and TVET considering
- Develop the capacity of TVET agencies in line with their roles in planning, policy design, and resource development, as well as activities related to follow-up, monitoring, evaluation and networking;
- Diversify the number and type of TVET providers and ensure their coordination and cooperation;
- Promote women's participation in TVET and encourage their involvement at the planning and executive level;
- Encourage media’s promotion of TVET as a way of enhancing positive attitudes towards vocational and technical professions and towards women's participation in TVET training and employment;
- Initiate, institutionalise and upgrade channels between the demand and supply side of TVET - including legislation; information and resource development systems;occupational classification and standards; career counselling and employment services, etc.;
- Promote TVET research by cooperating with universities and other TVET stakeholders;
- Consider and apply international best practices in TVET with the objective of developing national planning capabilities;
- Develop legislative tools and create an adequate legal framework for TVET;
- Develop organisational structures that link general education and TVET allowing for greater flexibility of the TVET system;
- Highlight and promote women’s’ role in TVET;
- Establish the Higher Council for Human Resources Development to undertake responsibilities related to planning, police-making, and coordination of human resource development (HRD) at the national level; and
- Establish the E-TVET Council to undertake activities related to planning, policy-making and coordination for employment and TVET at the national level.”
The main law regulating education in Jordan is the Education Act No. 3 of 1994 which outlines the objectives and policies of education, as well as the functions of the Ministry of Education and the Board of Education. It also sets out a framework regulating textbooks, curricula, examinations and the functioning of private and foreign educational institutions. In 1964, the Education Act was expanded to diversity secondary education which includes the provision of vocational programmes.
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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems
Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education Ed VII. 2010/2011. Jordan.
Formal TVET system
The compulsory stage of education starts with ten years of basic (primary) education. Prior to that children can be sent to kindergartens which are private and public or run by non-governmental organisations. Secondary education lasts for two years and is divided into two steams – comprehensive (academic and vocational) and applied secondary. The comprehensive secondary branch is managed by the Ministry of Education, while the Vocational Training Corporation (VTC) is in charge of the applied secondary branch.
At the end of secondary schooling, students following the comprehensive track take the general secondary education examination which allows them to enter university. Those who opt out are awarded the school proficiency certificate and join the labour force. The two-year applied secondary education provides students with a more practical training through apprenticeship schemes, while the practical experience in comprehensive secondary schools is provided in school workshops. In general secondary education is not compulsory and free of charge at Ministry of Education (MOE) schools.
Non-formal and informal TVET systems
There is a large number of public and private institutions providing non-formal TVET. There are programmes focusing on upgrading educational and occupational standards, raising efficiency and improving performance at work, as well as facilitating career change. Despite the large number of non-formal TVET programmes, there is a lack of a coherent policy and strategic framework which results in overlapping programmes, a lack of quality assessment and weak link between formal and non-formal TVET (E-TVET Strategy, 2005).
The E-TVET Strategy (2005) seeks to improve the role of non-formal TVET by outlining a set of guidelines:
- Non-formal TVET needs to be incorporated in national socio-economic plans in general and human resource development in particular;
- Legislation addressing non-formal TVET needs to be developed and updated;
- A framework for accreditation, licensing and quality control for institutions providing non-formal TVET need to be developed;
- The non-formal system needs to be better linked to the formal TVET allowing for greater mobility within the TVET system;
- Incentives need to be provided for the NGO sector to implement non-formal TVET programmes, especially those targeting students with special needs;
- A financial framework for non-formal TVET needs to be developed and should consider the role of both trainees and employers;
- Consideration should be given to an even geographical distribution of non-formal TVET programmes; and
- The E-TVET Council should take responsibility for planning, policy-making, development and evaluation of non-formal TVET systems, services and programmes.
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3. Governance and financing
Jordan is divided into 41 educational regions, each administered by a local Directorate for Education. Nevertheless, the Ministry of Education plays the main part in a highly centralised education system. It sets the frameworks for, among others, curricula, textbooks, recruitment of teachers, legislative tools and regulations and financing. The Board of Education which is made up of public and private stakeholders approves curricula and textbooks; discusses the educational polices and advises the Ministry of Education.
TVET is organised by three government agencies: Ministry of Education (MOE), Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (MOHESR), Vocational Training Corporation (VTC). However, the Ministry of Labour, supported by the TVET Council, is the main body in charge of coordination, policy-making and overall supervision of the TVET system. As stipulated in the National Agenda, the TVET Council was established as the main governing body in charge of TVET policies and strategies. The Council also provides advice to the Development Coordination Unit (DCU). The DCU is in charge of terms of reference for technical assistance, contracting consultants and liaising with the TVET Council, Secretariat and other TVET stakeholders. It is also in charge of facilitating the implementation of the Council’s policies and therefore providing support to implementing agencies; coordinating inputs for annual budgets, plans, reports and audits; preparing quarterly reports; coordinating and participating in donor relations; and sustaining its financial management system. However, DCU is confined to coordinating between different TVET entities; and monitoring as well as reporting to ensure alignment with the objectives of the TVET reform.
The Vocational Training Corporation (VTC) is a semi-autonomous body under the Ministry of Labour. It was established in 1976 and is in charge of providing technical and vocational education and training through skills-upgrading programmes and intensive short-courses, as well as apprenticeship schemes.
TVET providers in Jordan are:
- Ministry of Education (MOE)
- Board of Education (BOE)
- Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (MOHESR)
- Higher Education Council (HEC)
- Al-Balqa' Applied University (BAU)
- Vocational Training Corporation (VTC)
- Armed forces
- Private education sector
- Private sector
National Agenda (2006- 2015) that is focused on key economic and social development issues (for more information see Section 1: TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy) addresses E-TVET sector reform and gives the Ministry of Labour the lead role in this process.
Proposals of the National Agenda for E-TVET contribute significantly towards development of a policy framework for the sector in terms of governance and management. The proposals include the establishment of Higher Council on Human Resource Development, an Employment and TVET (E-TVET) Council, an E-TVET Fund, an independent Quality Assurance Agency, and the remodelling of the VTC as an autonomous body. A reformed E-TVET governance model is shown in the scheme below:
Scheme extracted from Ministry of Labour (2012). E-TVET Sector Reform.
The E-TVET Strategy (2005) defines a set of policies that are to guide the financing of TVET:
- A well-defined financial framework needs to be developed for the financing of the TVET system, e.g. its programmes and services;
- The role of the Employment and Training Fund needs to be enhanced;
- Learners’ contributions towards TVET programmes need to be rationalised, especially in sub-professional (technician) and adult learning schemes;
- Self-funding capabilities of TVET providers need to be encouraged through measures such as income-generating activities;
- There needs to be greater efficiency in TVET planning, design and the operation of the TVET system;
- Funding policies for TVET need to consider the needs of SMEs and the informal sector; and
- Support needs to be given to study and research of TVET economics, especially in the area of costing and cost-effectiveness.”
The objectives of the Fund are to support and develop TVET programmes, develop the training processes in both sectors public and private, as well as raise public awareness of TVET.
The ETF (2006) conducted a comparative analysis of three TVET institutions (MOE, VTC, BAU). It concluded that the share of government contributions in the organisations’ budgets is decreasing allowing them to avoid shocks associated with budgetary restriction. Own income, foreign donations and loans give TVET institutions the autonomy in the management of their resources, as well as freeing them form complex procedures necessary for receiving and spending public funding.
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4. TVET teachers and trainers
All teachers, regardless of the cycle they are teaching in, are required to hold a university degree. A bachelor’s degree suffices for teaching at the basic level, while a one-year postgraduate degree is necessary for the secondary cycle.
Additionally, there is comprehensive in-service training on modern teaching methods, curricula and textbooks. The General Directorate of Training, under the Ministry of Education, is in charge of planning these programmes. In cooperation with educational experts, as well as regional and international organisations, the Directorate works to improve training, certification, supervision and competences of teaching and administrative staff. Pre-service training concentrates on effective teaching methods, work-related skills, critical thinking, cooperative teaching and application of academic thinking in practise. “Although about 80% of teachers fulfil the first requirement of holding a first university degree according to their specialisation, the majority have so far not acquired the pedagogical requirement” (UNESCO, 2010). Teachers are promoted according to years of experience, distinctive performance or an additional academic qualification.
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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks
National Qualifications Framework (NQF)
The E-TVET Strategy (2005) sets out a number of policies guiding the process of establishing a common qualifications framework. The policies are:
- Adoption of a unified Arab Occupational Classification, Job Description and Standards System which is compatible with the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO);
- Developing and adopting legislative and organisational frameworks for licensing the practice of certain jobs by individuals and companies;
- Developing a comprehensive occupational testing system;
- Establishing an autonomous body (under the supervision of the E-TVET Council) in charge of testing and accreditation;
- Ensuring the adoption by government and non-government organisations of the national system of occupational classification and standards; and
- Adopting a framework setting out the relation between educational and occupational levels (see below).
Scheme extracted from E-TVET Strategy (2005).
In line with the E-TVET Strategy, the German-funded regional TVET Project (http://www.arabtvet.net/) was set up to establish a TVET platform for regional TVET reform. The project run in two phases (1st phase: 2003 -2007 and 2nd phase: 2007 – 2011) The participating countries (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Occupied Palestinian Territories, Syria) cooperated on three main areas:
- Consolidation of the TVET regional network;
- Regional use of an Arab Occupational Classification standard (AOC); and
- Qualification of TVET multipliers (ToT).
In line with the E-TVET Strategy, the Arab Occupational Qualification (AOC) adopted in 2008 provides a system for collecting and organising vocational titles and establishes a common understanding for vocational structures for the labour force by outlining the type of work executed and the level of skill required.
The TVET Council is responsible for overall quality assurance and assessment of the TVET system in Jordan. The Council proposed a monitoring and evaluation framework for the TVET system which is under development.
Its objectives are to:
- Develop a TVET sector performance assessment system;
- Establish performance indicators for the TVET system based on national performance objectives;
- Design data-gathering tools and reporting mechanisms;
- Undertake performance analysis and recommended remedial action; and
- Ensure feedback into the policy assessment cycle.”
- Setting up and developing standards for technical and vocational education and training to control the resulting quality;
- Licensing and accrediting technical and vocational education and training institutions; and
- Conducting occupational tests for those involved in technical and vocational work and granting occupational licenses.
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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges
Current reforms and major projects
As part of the E-TVET Reform, international donors and funding agencies are participating in the Employer Driven Skills Development Programme (EDSDP), a World Bank funded project running from June 2008 until September 2013.
The main objective of EDSDP is to realign TVET policy with the corresponding operational mechanisms. In this regard, employer’ participation is developed in the sector of policy formulation, institutional development and reform, as well as skills development programme design and delivery.
To achieve its objective, EDSDP focuses on developing policy, operational and institutional capacity of the TVET Council and its Secretariat. The Programme also focuses on restructuring the Vocational Training Corporations (VTC) by implementing an employer-driven model that will deliver more efficient and effective business and training services. Furthermore, the TVET Fund is being supported in developing its institutional capacity to allow improved funding mechanisms in the TVET system.
The Ministry of Labour identified the following challenges for TVET in Jordan:
- Fragmentation of the TVET sector;
- Lacking involvement of the private sector in TVET;
- Limited links between TVET providers and the needs of the labour market;
- Lack of efficient financing mechanisms in TVET;
- Civil service rules and regulations obstructing the hiring of highly qualified teachers and trainers for the public TVET system;
- Poor image of TVET in the Jordanian society (last resort option);
- Weak and fragmented educational guidance and counselling system ;
- Poor equipment and infrastructure in TVET schools;
- Lack of attention to lifelong-learning in the education system;
- Little autonomy of TVET institutions, in particular with regard to developing continuing training opportunities; and
- Limited reach of the Labour Information System (due to its initial stage).
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7. Statistical information(*)
Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision
Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on World Bank Database
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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions
- Ministry of Education (MoE)
- National Training of Trainers Institute (NTTI)
- The University of Jordan
- Vocational Training Corporation
- National Centre for Human Resources Development (NCHRD)
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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations
- European Training Foundation (2006). Technical and Vocational education and Training in Jordan – Areas for Development Cooperation. Turin: ETF. Accessed: 19 March 2012.
- European Training Foundation (2011). Torino Process 2010 - Jordan. Turin: ETF. Accessed: 16 March 2012.
- Ministry of Labour (2012). E-TVET Sector Reform. Amman: Ministry of Labour. Accessed: 16 March 2012.
- National Centre for Human Resource Development (2012). E-TVET Strategy. Amman: NCHRD. Accessed: 16 March 2012.
- QPerspective (2009). Gender in E-TVET: Extent of women`s participation and proposed strategies for change. Amman: Ministry of Labour.
- UNESCO (2010). Entrepreneurship Education in the Arab States. Bonn: UNESCO-UNEVOC. Accessed: 19 March 2011.
- UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Jordan. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE. Accessed: 16 March 2012.
- USAid (2008). Modernizing the Vocational Training Corporation - Hotel and Tourism Training Centres. Washington: USAid. Accessed: 19 March 2011.
- Webpage of the Ministry of Labour
- Webpage of the Vocational Training Corporation
- Webpage of the TVET Portal – The Arabic Gate to TVET
- BAU - Al-Balqa' Applied University
- DCU - Development Coordination Unit
- EDSDP - Employer Driven Skills Development Programme
- E-TVET - Employment and Technical and Vocational Education and Training
- HRD - Human Resource Development
- MOE - Ministry of Education
- NCHRD - National Centre for Human Resource Development
- SIAST - Saskatchewan Institute of Science and Technology
- VTC - Vocational Training Corporation
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