World TVET Database - Country Profiles

Kyrgyzstan

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Kyrgyzstan
published: 2013-06-25

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

The transition period of the Kyrgyz Republic has led to many changes in the economic and social life of the newly independent country. Its educational system was still based on the Soviet framework and lacked modern and elastic TVET programmes that would enable the country to supply qualified workers to support its emerging economy. The current overall mission of the educational system therefore emphasises as its priority the fostering of knowledge and skills that meet the demands of a market-oriented economy.

TVET strategy

After the decision in 2007 to assign TVET an independent status, a number of advantages became evident:

  • Stronger focus on quality of training and education of the workforce and on creating adequate environment for good education;
  • Deeper investigation of the labour market needs that is based on close relationship with employers; and
  • Updated content of education that allows for a much better level of workforce training and education and meets employers’ requirements.
TVET legislation

The main legislative act that provides for state education policy, basic principles of education and the conditions of functioning of the education system is the Law on Education adopted in 1992 and last amended in 2009. The Law on Education distinguishes between three levels of professional education:

  • Initial professional education
  • Secondary professional education
  • Higher professional education
The Law on Initial Vocational Education that was approved in 1999 and amended in 2008 provides the definition of initial vocational education, the rights of citizens to TVET guaranteed by the State, describes types of initial TVET schools and their financing scheme, and provides regulations on licensing and accreditation of initial TVET institutions and teachers.

Another important legal document is the Law on the Status of Teacher adopted in 2001 and amended in 2009. The law regulates the principles of state policy, legal, economic and social relations regarding teacher activities.

Other legal acts, decrees and regulations regulating the TVET system include:

  • Strategic and strategic action programmes for TVET Development to 2011;
  • Strategy for TVET Consolidation and Modernisation and Action Plan 2009-2011;
  • Government decrees and regulations regarding the structure and establishment of the State Agency for Professional and Technical Education;
  • Government regulations regarding quality assurance in TVET; Qualifications framework; Employment framework;
  • Model Charter of the State Education Organisation- Vocational School (approved by a decree of the State Agency for Vocational Education № 4/14 on 16 January 2008)
  • Regulation on Vocational Schools by Correctional Facilities of Penal Execution Department of the Ministry of Justice of the Kyrgyz Republic (2007);
  • Government Resolution ’On Regulatory Legal Documents that Regulate Operation of Initial Vocational Education System’ (2003);
  • Government Resolution ‘On Approval of a List of Professions and Occupations of Initial Vocational Education’ (2003).
Sources:

  • ETF (2010). Vocational Education and Training in the Kyrgyz Republic. Current Situation and Perspectives. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • State Agency for Vocational Education (2009). Analytical Report. Legal and Institutional Review. Bishkek: State Agency for Vocational Education.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Kyrgyz Republic. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Kyrgyz Republic. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

Formal TVET system

TVET starts in the educational system of the Kyrgyz Republic at the secondary education level. Professional lyceums and vocational technical colleges are the institutions providing initial professional education. They offer three types of courses:

  • Three-year course: a combination of vocational and general education including components necessary to apply to higher education institutions;
  • Two-year course aimed at the holders of basic secondary education certificate (grade 9 graduates): a combination of vocational and general education without components necessary to apply to higher education institutions;
  • Ten-month course: strictly vocational education destined for youth and adults; and
  • Post-secondary, tertiary-level vocational training that is a part of secondary-level professional education is provided by Technicums.
Higher level professional education includes Bachelor, Specialist and Master Studies that are intended to deepen the knowledge gained during secondary professional education level.

Higher education institutions are the ones providing higher professional education.

The types of specialist training to be offered are decided by secondary and higher education institutions autonomously. They are also free to establish their curriculum as long as it is in line with State educational standards.

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Private educational institutions also provide professional and technical training courses in the framework of non-formal education. Those institutions are: NGOs, private companies of professional training, specialised professional organisations, individual providers of vocational training, including international experts. Most of the non-formal education programmes are dedicated to developing trade and marketing skills and knowledge and professional skills necessary to work in services, industry and other sectors.

Sources:

  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Kyrgyz Republic. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    3. Governance and financing

Governance

The Ministry of Labour and Social Protection and its Department for Vocational Training and Education is responsible for the policies regarding initial professional education, whereas the Ministry of Education and Science and its Department of Secondary and Higher Professional Education is in charge of state policies for secondary and higher professional education.

Sectoral Ministries and private organisations each bear responsibility for providing professional education in their field of competence, e.g. Ministry of Health, Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, State Commission on Culture, Ministry of Economics and External Trade, State Commission on Tourism and Sport, Ministry of Transport, etc.

Since the Kyrgyz Republic is divided into provinces, provincial departments are responsible for administering vocational, technical and higher education.

The State Agency of Vocational Education became a government body in the system of technical and vocational education in 2008. Its objectives and functions are to implement the integrated government policy on providing the labour market with a skilled workforce and meeting the needs of society in vocational education with regard to the interest and capacities of citizens. The structural chart of the Agency reflects its departmental affiliations. The responsibilities over the management of the main activities of vocational schools at the local level are assigned to interregional departments. However the Bishkek City Department of Vocational Education has a special status. Its regulations are approved by the city administration in coordination with the State Agency. Bishkek vocational schools that are established by the same agency are supervised by the Bishkek Vocational Education Department and participate in all events organised by the city administration.

The National Institute for Raising the Qualifications of Teachers and Teacher Training, a sub-organisation of the Kyrgyz Academy of Education, is responsible for national coordination of teacher training.

The State Migration and Employment Committee’s Information and Counselling Centre of Bishkek is the only organisation providing career and employment guidance. It operates in Bishkek only and helps students from upper-secondary programmes.

According to the legislation of the Kyrgyz Republic Vocational schools have the right to collaborate with international and non-governmental organisations to make agreements beneficial for the schools. The relationship of the schools with third parties is regulated on a contractual basis.

Social partners that are involved in the national TVET system are various professional organisations and associations, such as:

  • National Confederation of Employers of the Kyrgyz Republic
  • Chamber of Industry and Commerce of the Kyrgyz Republic
  • Association of Consumer Goods Industry
  • Association Souztetstil (textile enterprises)
  • Trade Union of Employees of consumer goods industry, paper making industry and services
  • Production and construction company JSC Bishkek Kurulush
  • Industrial Employers Federation Guild of Directors
  • Kyrgyz RNAUF Marketing Ltd.
  • Union of Entrepreneurs
  • Kyrgyz Post Service Kyrgyzpochtasy
  • JSC Kyrgyztelecom
  • Bishkek City Trolleybus Department, etc.
  • International organisations that take part in the TVET system of Kyrgyz Republic are:
  • Project of the Regional ILO Office in the Kyrgyz Republic
  • GTZ Vocational Education Reform and Labor Market Project
  • Helvetas Rural and Agricultural Vocational Education Project
  • Project Implementation Unit (PIU) of the Asian Development Bank Vocational
  • Education and Skills Development Project
  • UNDP Programme Manager on Poverty Alleviation
  • European Training Foundation (Through the Forum of Training Initiatives)
  • Ministry of Education of Turkey
  • UNESCO
  • USAID
  • MERCICO (industry and marketing organisation), etc.
Financing

The main source of TVET financing is the republican budget. The Decree ‘On Transition of Vocational Schools Financed from the Republican and Local Budgets to Financing through the State Agency of Vocational Education by the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic’ enacted by the National Government ensures the same financing terms and creates equal opportunities for all vocational schools.

The schools are not limited to the funds received from the republican budgets, they are also free to attract additional sources of financing, which are accumulated at separate accounts as special means that are defined as funds received by schools, besides state budget allocations.

Table 1 presents the different government structures that interact with the State Agency of Vocational Education on different matters:

Agency Responsibility Interaction
Government of the Kyrgyz Republic A collegiate authority that leads the unified system of executive power bodies in the Kyrgyz Republic and deals with all public administration issues Both regular and routine reporting on all aspects of its activities
Ministry of Economic Development and Trade of the Kyrgyz Republic Responsible for social and economic development policy, aimed at creating an environment for sustainable economic growth Progress reporting on implementation of the national and government programs, organization of works on performance evaluation functional analysis and development of strategic documents
Ministry of Education and Science of the Kyrgyz Republic Implements state education policy Coordination of issues related to its main activity
Ministry of Labor and Social Development of the Kyrgyz Republic Implements state policy in the field of social development and labor Coordination of issues related to labor and social protection
Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic Determines the policy in the field of financing. Coordination and approval of all issues related to state budget financing
Ministry of Justice of the Kyrgyz Republic Responsible for normative and legal regulation in the established field Agreement and coordination of draft legal normative documents.Jointly with GUIN (Penalty Execution Department) of the Ministry of Justice – creating conditions for training of prisoners

State Committee of Migration and Employment of the Kyrgyz Republic Determines policies for training of the unemployed Determines policies for training of the unemployed
State Property Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic Control of safety and use of state property Coordination of issues related to lease, hand over and confiscation of state property
State Agency of the Kyrgyz Republic on Sport, Physical Culture, Youth Affairs and Child Protection An executive power body whose functions include implementation of the government policy in the field of physical culture and sport, youth affairs and child protection Reporting on documents related to youth and children affairs
State Agency of Information Resources and Technologies of the Kyrgyz Republic Implements the functions of executive power in the field of information resources and technologies. Control over standards, forms, structures in development, entering and maintenance of the State Register of Personified Documents Development of state diplomas and certificates
State Agency for Antitrust Policy and Competition Development of the Kyrgyz Republic Implements the government policy in the field of competition development, state regulating and control of operation of natural and allowed monopolies on preventing, limiting, elimination of monopolistic activity and unfair competition, and protection of consumer rights and advertising Coordination of price-lists for educational services and development of Register of Fee-based Education Services
Table extracted from State Agency for Vocational Education (2009). Analytical Report. Legal and Institutional Review. Bishkek: SAfVE.


Sources:

  • ETF (2010). Vocational Education and Training in the Kyrgyz Republic. Current Situation and Perspectives. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • State Agency for Vocational Education (2009). Analytical Report. Legal and Institutional Review. Bishkek: State Agency for Vocational Education.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Kyrgyz Republic. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    4. TVET teachers and trainers

Only teachers with appropriate pedagogical qualifications can teach in educational institutions. Those holding a complete general secondary education certificate and wishing to become a teacher at secondary and higher education level can either attend a four-to-five year programme in a university or college (secondary school teacher) or a four-year Bachelor programme together with one-year Master programme (University teacher).

According to current legislation all in-service teachers are supposed to attend in-service training courses every five years.

Not all of TVET trainers have higher education qualifications. According to the ETF report on "Vocational Education and Training in the Kyrgyz Republic" about half of chief masters and general educators have higher education degrees.

Sources:

  • ETF (2010). Vocational Education and Training in the Kyrgyz Republic. Current Situation and Perspectives. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Kyrgyz Republic. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

Successful completion of a 3-year initial vocational programme grants a student a professional qualification and gives the right to apply to Higher Education institutions. Successful completion of a two-year or ten-month programme leads to a professional qualification but does not give the right to apply to Higher Education institutions.

Post-secondary vocational education

Higher education Institutions award Bachelor and Master Degrees and Specialist Diplomas.

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

At present the TVET qualifications system is based on the following (ETF, 2009):

  • A general classifier of professions for workers and employees and tariff categories covering all three levels of professional education. This document has a very restricted and narrow definition of professions;
  • A general classifier of occupations dated 1998;
  • A list of professions for ITVET approved in 2003 and published in 2006;
  • Standard duration of secondary TVET areas of study (professions) dated 2003;
  • 17 occupational standards which have been adopted in ITVET along with modules and training standards dated 2008.
A project of development and implementation of a National Qualifications Framework has been in place since 2004. The European Training Foundation was the main initiator of this process. This initiative helped to attract attention in the labour market and increased employers’ involvement in the educational system. The NQF is being developed in accordance with the European Qualifications Framework and is based on learning outcomes. So far only some sectors have been included in the project (e.g. tourism), while qualification standards are still under development in others.

Quality assurance

Quality control and assurance of TVET institutions is the responsibility of the State Agency for Professional and Technical Education and the Inspectorate for Licensing and Accreditation.

Sources:

  • ETF (2010). Vocational Education and Training in the Kyrgyz Republic. Current Situation and Perspectives. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • Online forum for education initiatives (2010). National qualifications frameworks in Central Asia.


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    6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

A number of projects have been in place with the aim to address some of the challenges currently facing the TVET system.

To increase the number of well-qualified teachers, the government has introduced incentives to attract more young people to the teaching profession (free university education in pedagogical disciplines, salary enhancement schemes). The Government is also actively involved in the organisation of various in-service teacher training programmes, mainly in the areas of construction, farming and ICT. These actions are aimed at improving and upgrading the level of TVET teacher qualifications.

The State Migration and Employment Committee with the support of ETF has launched a project that is aimed at developing guidance and counselling centres throughout the country and will support adults and those engaged in training for unemployed in career development.

The State Agency for Professional and Technical Education together with the State Migration and Employment Committee have established stronger cooperation in order to improve education and labour market policies and meet the challenges of Lifelong learning.

The State Agency for Professional and Technical Education is working on increasing the number of students that are financed from other sources such as the budget of the State Migration and Employment Committee, individual fees and contracts with enterprises.

In order to improve the image and popularity of TVET programmes the State Agency for Professional and Technical Education has initiated several promotional campaigns.

A skills anticipation system is in place, led by the State Migration and Employment Committee that issues forecasts based on data from regional and local authorities. These forecasts are used to guide the supply of state-financed educational institutions.

The State Agency for Professional and Technical Education has launched the so-called TVET platforms that manage the efforts of donors and social partners that are interested in TVET development.

Innovative short-term courses for adult training have been introduced. They are less tied to the state standards and therefore can be easily adapted to the current needs of the labour market.

Another project in that area is cooperation between the State Agency for Professional and Technical Education and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) which is focused on studying the possibilities of implementation of ILO modules of skills for employability. So far only a few schools are ready to employ modular training because the system has special requirements for teacher training and organisation.

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and BIZ (Germany) are involved in the reorganisation and support of the educational system in the Kyrgyz Republic. They are involved in the developments concerning the NQF; teacher training; improvement of cooperation between social partners and authorities; modernisation of learning content, provision of technical resources, and formation of efficient financing system, etc. One of the ADB projects is aimed at optimisation of TVET schools by developing a system of fewer but more efficient multi-profile education institutions. The idea is carefully considered because state authorities are preoccupied of not having enough TVET school in the rural areas as a result of this project.

The issue of adult education is also a priority in the educational scene of the Kyrgyz Republic. Since the programmes offered by educational institutions are mainly supply-driven, a need to re-qualify workers to adapt their qualifications to the demands of the labour market is currently addressed in the development of adult training. The country has signed relevant international documents referring to adult education and training. The government has approved the Education for All national plan, a part of which is devoted to adult education. The implementation of continuing adult learning is considered a step towards recognition and validation of prior learning. The articulation of formal and non-formal learning is being considered with a number of issues still remaining open.

Sources:

  • ETF (2010). Vocational Education and Training in the Kyrgyz Republic. Current Situation and Perspectives. Turin: European Training Foundation.


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    7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

5.04
5.08
5.14
5.20
5.27
5.33
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+1.16 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
2.55 2.49
female male  
2.57 2.51
female male  
2.60 2.54
female male  
2.63 2.57
female male  
2.67 2.60
female male  
2.70 2.63
female male  

50.56 %

50.57 %

50.59 %

50.61 %

50.64 %

50.66 %



''Table compiled by Unesco-Unevoc based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision''

GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2006

2007

2008

2009

2010


546

726

726

881

860


''Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC base on World Bank database''


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions


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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

Further reading

Abbreviations

  • ADB - Asian Development Bank
  • CTVET - Continuous Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • EQF - European Qualifications Framework
  • ILO - International Labour Organisation
  • ITVET - Initial Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • LLL - Lifelong Learning
  • NQF - National Qualifications Framework
  • TVET - Technical and Vocational Education and Training




    Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
    Publication Date: 2013-06-25
    Validated by: Ms Aliya Djusupova;
    Forum for Educational Initiatives (FEI)



page date 2017-05-05

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