World TVET Database - Country Profiles

Lithuania

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Lithuania
published: 2014-01-17

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

TVET in Lithuania aims to become an attractive option in the overall lifelong learning system. The key measures to attain this aim are incentives for promoting participation in TVET and vocational guidance and counselling services.

TVET strategy

The TVET national policy focuses on:

  • developing resources for TVET to improve its quality;
  • upgrading TVET responsiveness to labour market needs; and
  • increasing TVET attractiveness.
Additionally, other measures are implemented for increasing the attractiveness of TVET such as:

  • strengthening TVET links with other education sectors through: (1) bringing TVET and general education closer together; and (2) improving mobility between TVET and higher education;
  • involving social partners into the formation and the assessment of TVET qualifications and TVET curricula; and
  • reorganising the status of TVET public institutions into self-governing ones and creating opportunities for employers to contribute directly to the management of TVET institutions.
TVET legislation

  • Vocational Guidance Act of 2012 (Profesinio orientavimo vykdymo tvarkos aprašas) states that the main educational institutions that provide guidance services (career education, information and counselling) to their learners are general education schools and TVET institutions. Municipalities are responsible for organisation and coordination of guidance services at schools at municipal level.
  • Law on Vocational Education and Training of 1997, amended in 2007 (1) stipulates that the Lithuanian TVET system covers: initial TVET (IVET), continuing TVET (CVET), and vocational guidance; (2) regulates the organisation of the TVET system and its structure and administration, based upon the cooperation of state government institutions and social partners (No. VIII-450); and (3) sets principles for the TVET system management and quality assurance, defines the national qualifications framework, introduces the apprenticeship scheme, and creates legal preconditions to bridge initial and continuing TVET.
  • Law on Non-formal Adult Education No. VIII-822 of 30 June 1998 regulates non-formal education. Non-formal education in Lithuania consists of self-education based on individual or societal interests and is not defined by the National Education Register.
Sources:

  • CEDEFOP (2013). Vocational Education and Training in Lithuania, Short Description. Luxemburg: Publication Office of the European Union.
  • CEDEFOP ReferNet (2012). Lithuania VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
  • Ministry of Education and Science (2013). Ministry Activities. Vilnius: Ministry of Education and Science. Accessed: 24 September 2013.
  • Republic of Lithuania (2003). Provisions of the National Education Strategy 2003-2012. Vilnius: Ministry of Education and Science. Accessed: 24 March 2013.
  • Republic of Lithuania (2011). Law amending the Law on Education on 17 March 2011 No XI-1281. Vilnius: Ministry of Education and Science. Accessed: 24 March 2013.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Lithuania. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from CEDEFOP (2013). Vocational Education and Training in Lithuania, Short Description. Luxemburg: Publication Office of the European Union.

Formal TVET system

The TVET system covers:

Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET)

IVET programmes are offered at lower, upper and post-secondary education levels in which learners have an opportunity to acquire a first vocational qualification and complete general lower or upper secondary education. Practical training and training in enterprises constitute a major part of the IVET programme. For instance, the practical training comprises 60 to 70 percent of the total time allocated to teaching vocational subjects, of which eight to fifteen weeks is organised in a company or school-based workshop.

  • Programmes at the lower secondary education: the duration of programmes is two to three years. These programmes are designed for students over 14 years of age. Successful graduates receive a vocational qualification certificate and/or a basic school certificate and are eligible to continue with further TVET or general education or to enter to labour market.
  • Programmes at the upper secondary education: the duration of programmes is two to three years. Graduates of these programmes obtain a Matura certificate which allows access either to higher education or the labour market.
•*Programmes at the post-secondary education: the duration of programmes is one to two years. Successful graduates obtain access to higher education/college, or university study programmes or the labour market.

Continuing Vocational Education and Training (CVET)

CVET covers programmes with various educational attainment levels for learners who are older than 18. They may be required to have a certain vocational qualification or work experience. Duration of programmes is shorter than one year but depends on the target group and complexity of the qualifications. These programmes lead to: a vocational qualification; or an additional vocational qualification; or a competence to perform jobs or functions regulated by law. The practical training comprises 60 to 80 percent of these programmes.

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Non-formal TVET is most commonly found in CVET and is designed for acquisition of a vocational qualification or individual competences. It is carried out in various forms: learning at the workplace, attending non-formal training courses, distance learning, etc. The following three forms are the most used for organising non-formal and informal training:

  • non-formal training/learning of employees and self-employed persons initiated by the employer. It is organised in various settings, using forms and programmes chosen by the employer. Some companies have their own qualification frameworks or apply internationally-recognised sectoral qualifications and programmes. Such training/learning is funded by a company or an agency or a learner. When relevant, tax incentives are used;
  • training employees funded by the State budget (such as training civil servants and employees in certain economic sectors: healthcare, agriculture, etc.); and
  • training the unemployed and people notified of dismissal funded through a voucher system introduced in 2012 to finance training in formal and non-formal education programmes.
Sources:

  • CEDEFOP (2013). Spotlight on VET Lithuania. Thessaloniki: Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
  • CEDEFOP (2013). Vocational Education and Training in Lithuania, Short Description. Luxemburg: Publication Office of the European Union.
  • CEDEFOP ReferNet (2012). Lithuania VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Lithuania. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    3. Governance and financing

Governance

The Ministry of Education and Science (SMM) is responsible for shaping and implementing TVET policy. The main SMM functions include approval of:

  • the annual plan for TVET programmes and the procedure for formal TVET;
  • students’ enrolment in State-funded TVET programmes; and
  • the procedure for developing and licensing formal TVET programmes.
SMM also issues licences for provision of formal TVET and accredit competence assessment institutions.

The Qualifications and Vocational Education and Training Development Centre (KPMPC) (Kvalifikacijų ir profesinio mokymo plėtros centras) (since January 2010; formerly the Methodological Centre for VET, established in 1996) operates under the SMM and manages the qualifications system, including organising development of TVET standards and qualifications standards. KPMPC also collects and analyses information on TVET, designs methodologies for developing TVET and assesses and develops TVET quality. It also acts as the national quality assurance reference point for TVET and the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) national coordination point.

The Ministry of Economy has a special role in developing human resources. It participates in creating and implementing human resources development policy, TVET policy, and organises research on future skill needs and disseminates its results through vocational guidance.

Other ministries can also participate in development and implementation of TVET policy by submitting proposals for legal acts on education and training, and participating in working groups that draft legal acts. Some ministries (such as the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Social Security and Labour, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Internal Affairs, and Ministry of Agriculture) contribute to developing and implementing IVET and CVET programmes.

Advisory institutions play an important role in the design and the implementation of TVET and the development of the TVET qualifications system. The most important advisory institutions are:

  • the Vocational Education and Training Council (Profesinio mokymo taryba), is a collegial institution that advises national education authorities on solving strategic TVET issues. It consists of equal representatives from the State, municipal institutions and organisations representing employers’ and employees’ interests;
  • the Central Professional Committee (Centrinis profesinis komitetas), is a cooperation-based advisory body that coordinates strategic issues pertaining to the development of the qualifications system. Its main roles are to: initiate legislation necessary for development and maintenance of the qualifications system; initiate the revision of the Lithuania Qualifications Framework (LTQF); establish priority sectors for the qualifications system; discuss and suggest decisions regarding the qualifications system’s structure; advise the KPMPC on ensuring correspondence between qualifications and labour market needs; accredit competence assessment institutions; link national qualifications with the EQF. The committee consists of eighteen members. The SMM and the Ministries of Economy and Agriculture, the Association of Local Authorities, the KPMPC and the Centre for Quality Assurance in Higher Education delegate one representative each; three are delegated by the Universities Rectors’ Conference, the Colleges Directors' Conference and the TVET Institutions Association; nine are delegated by social partners.
  • Social partners are involved in TVET policy development through the TVET Council and the Central Professional Committee. They have the right to initiate development of new TVET qualifications, TVET qualifications standards and TVET programmes. Representatives of social partners participate in: devising content of TVET curricula; assessing TVET programmes with regard to their correspondence to labour market needs; organising learners’ practical training and assessing the competences acquired.
Financing

Funding for TVET is allocated from the State budget. Training costs are calculated per student as approved by the government in 2008. Funding is allocated to the TVET provider based on the actual number of learners multiplied by the number of hours for implementing the programme and costs of a training hour. Under the government investment programme, TVET providers may receive funding from the State budget for construction, updating training facilities, and etc. Other funds such as the European structural Funds may support TVET activities and programmes. TVET providers may receive income from physical and legal entities for services provided (such as training courses, rent of premises). This income is used for education and training purposes.

The following table shows percentage of sources of funding for TVET:

2009 2010 2011
Funding from the state budget 89.4% 84.4% 83.3%
Funding from private sources (physical and legal entities) 8.2% 7.0% 8.2%
Funding from international organization 2.4% 8.6% 8.5%
Table extracted from Statistics Lithuania 2012.


Continuing training of employees is funded by the enterprise or learners. According to national legislation in certain cases training can be sponsored by the State.

Sources:

  • CEDEFOP (2013). Spotlight on VET Lithuania. Thessaloniki: Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
  • CEDEFOP (2013). Vocational Education and Training in Lithuania, Short Description. Luxemburg: Publication Office of the European Union.
  • CEDEFOP ReferNet (2012). Lithuania VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Lithuania. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    4. TVET teachers and trainers

TVET teachers must have a vocational and a pedagogical qualification or to have participated in a course on pedagogy and psychology.

TVET teacher training follows a consecutive model whereby a vocational qualification is studied first, followed by studies on pedagogy. Teachers without a pedagogical qualification, irrespective of their educational attainment level, are offered a 120-hour course on pedagogy and psychology. These courses are organised by accredited institutions and companies. In addition, universities provide programmes for TVET teachers’ pedagogical education.

The priority area for professional development of TVET teachers is updating their technological competences.

Sources:

  • CEDEFOP (2013). Vocational Education and Training in Lithuania, Short Description. Luxemburg: Publication Office of the European Union.
  • CEDEFOP ReferNet (2012). Lithuania VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Lithuania. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

TVET Programmes ISCED level Average duration Certificates awarded EQF level Further learning and career opportunities
Programmes at lower secondary education level 2C 2-3 years Vocational qualification certificate 2 Access to labour market
Programmes at lower secondary education level 2A 3 years Vocational qualification certificate; basic school certificate 2 Vocational qualification certificate; basic school certificate
Programmes at upper secondary education level 3C 2-3 years Vocational qualification certificate 3 Access to labour market
Programmes at upper secondary education level 3A 3 years Vocational qualification certificate; matura certificate 4 Access to higher education/college or university study programmes; access to labour market
Table extracted from CEDEFOP ReferNet publication: Lithuania VET in Europe - Country Report 2012.


Post-secondary vocational education

TVET Programmes ISCED level Average duration Certificates awarded EQF level Further learning and career opportunities
Programmes at post-secondary education level 4 1-2 years Vocational qualification certificate 4 Access to higher education/college or university study programmes; access to labour market
CVET programmes 2,3,4 Up to I year Vocational qualification certificate 1,2,3 Access to labour market
Table extracted from CEDEFOP ReferNet publication: Lithuania VET in Europe - Country Report 2012.


National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

In 2010, the government approved the Lithuanian Qualifications Framework (LTQF) which was developed based on a system of allocating learning outcomes to levels that already existed in the Lithuanian education system.

LTQF has eight levels and covers all education sectors. TVET qualifications are attributed to the first five levels of the LTQF in the Lithuanian qualifications system. Qualifications at levels 1-4 are acquired by completing vocational education and/or general education programmes. The most popular TVET LTQF levels in the labour market are levels 3 and 4 since acquisition of these qualifications allows individuals to work independently.

The eight levels are as follows:

  • Level 1 and 2: the two lowest levels are intended for people unlikely to acquire a higher level qualification. Even a relatively low-level qualification makes people’s integration into labour market easier and reduces their exclusion.
  • Level 3: the qualification is intended for activities in specific areas (such as cashier, sewing machine operator, painter). In addition, those who acquire a qualification at LTQF level 3 usually work under guidance from an employee with a higher qualification and are subject to external performance quality control.
  • Level 4: it is intended for relatively broad areas of activity (such as sales person, tailor, decorator). Those who acquire a qualification at LTQF level 4 are capable of assuming responsibility for quality of procedures and outcomes in performance of their activities.
  • Level 5: This level is special because it is on the boundary between TVET and higher education. Those who acquire a qualification at LTQF 5 are capable of supervising activities of lower-qualified staff, planning and assigning tasks, overseeing performance of tasks, providing consultation, and verifying performance quality. The LTQF provides two types of TVET qualifications at this level: (1) experienced, highly-skilled low-level managers or foremen; and (2) highly-skilled workers/technicians, whose activity requires large-scale theoretical training.
  • Level 6: qualifications are acquired by completing cycle one of university or college studies.
  • Level 7: qualifications are acquired by completing cycle two of university studies.
  • Level 8: qualifications are acquired by completing doctoral studies.
Quality assurance

Provisions for TVET quality assurance are set out in the 2008 TVET quality assurance system concept. This concept has a twofold focus; self-assessment and external assessment. TVET providers are encouraged to introduce internal quality assurance systems whereas an external assessment approach is being developed. Measures are applied to assure TVET quality at the State level as follows:

  • design and approval of TVET standards that serve as a basis for TVET programmes and assessment of learner achievements;
  • design and registration of training programmes, and issuance licences;
  • supervision of programme implementation; and
  • assessment of knowledge, skills and competences to acquire a qualification.
Further measures are applied to assure quality in TVET qualifications development as follows:

  • involving all stakeholders and social partners;
  • adhering to main principles of transparency at all stages of developing and awarding qualifications;
  • opening the qualifications system to change;
  • implementing the LTQF and participating in EQF implementation.
Sources:

  • CEDEFOP (2013). Spotlight on VET Lithuania. Thessaloniki: Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
  • CEDEFOP ReferNet (2012). Lithuania VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Lithuania. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

A number of institutions under SMM, including the KPMPC are assigned to implement the TVET Resources Development Programme (Praktinio profesinio mokymo išteklių plėtros programa). The programme was approved in 2007 and scheduled to continue until 2014. The main purposes of this programme are as follows:

  • increasing flexibility and improving the quality and accessibility of TVET;
  • creating conditions for learners to improve their interpersonal skills and their readiness for the world of work; and
  • creating conditions for TVET teachers to develop and update their skills regularly.
The programme’s activities entail: (1) creating a modular TVET model and relevant programmes in 25 educational fields; (2) setting up the infrastructure of 42 sectoral practical training centres; (3) updating TVET teachers’ technological competences; (4) developing an adult education system; (5) introducing internal quality assurance systems and (6) carrying out external assessment.

The programme budget is about EUR 168 million (LTL 580 million) allocated from the national budget and European structural Funds. In 2013, National and European structural funding was allocated to a pilot project to develop apprenticeship in 2013.

Challenges

  • Increasing adult participation in CVET - The government foresees a system that allows adults to upgrade their qualifications through recognition of the knowledge and skills they have acquired on the job and through non-formal learning.
  • Developing vocational guidance - The number of upper secondary students enrolled in vocationally oriented programmes is relatively low and the majority of upper secondary education graduates move directly to higher education after graduation. The National Vocational Guidance Programme addresses this challenge by focusing on: development of guidance tools; training guidance practitioners; provision and monitoring of career education and information; and counselling services for learners in TVET as well as in general and higher education.
  • Increasing work-based learning’s effectiveness - So far the implementation of the revised law on TVET of 2007 with regard to apprenticeship has been low. The government will strengthen work-based learning during the implementation of the LTQF under the 2012-16 Government Programme. European structural funds will support this priority in the period of 2014-20.
  • Improving TVET teachers’ competences - The government works hard to strengthen TVET teachers’ technological competences as part of the 2007-14 TVET Resources Development Programme. For instance, the government has started schemes for traineeships in companies. These schemes are still in the pilot phase.
Sources:

  • CEDEFOP (2013). Vocational Education and Training in Lithuania, Short Description. Luxemburg: Publication Office of the European Union.
  • CEDEFOP ReferNet (2012). Lithuania VET in Europe – Country report. Thessaloniki: Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Lithuania. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

3.29
3.24
3.19
3.14
3.10
3.07
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

-1.33 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
1.76 1.53
female male  
1.74 1.50
female male  
1.71 1.48
female male  
1.69 1.45
female male  
1.67 1.43
female male  
1.65 1.42
female male  

53.51 %

53.58 %

53.67 %

53.74 %

53.8 %

53.86 %



Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision

GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012


7 604

8 865

11 584

14 071

11 034

11 149

14 155

14 097


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC base on World Bank database of World Development Indicators and Global Development Finance

Employment (Million)


total female male
Population

3.07

1.65 1.42
.
Labour Force
53.5%
Labour Force Rate

53.5%

49.7%

57.9%

Labour Force

1.64

0.82 (50%) 0.82 (50%)
Unemployment Rate

13.7%

10.4%

17.1%

.
Unemployment
13.7%
Unemployed

0.23

0.09 (37.8%) 0.14 (62.2%)


Youth Employment (Million)


total youth total female male
Population 3.07 0.23 (7.3%) 0.09 (37.8%) 0.14 (62.2%)
.
Labour Force Rate

71.1%

81.2%

65%

Labour Force 1.64 0.16 (9.8%) 0.07 (43.1%) 0.09 (56.9%)
Unemployment Rate

29.4%

21.7%

35.2%

.
Unemployed 0.23 0.05 (20.9%) 0.02 (31.9%) 0.03 (68.1%)
Unemployed
youth : total

20.9%

.

Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC base on ILO: Key indicators of the labour market

Participation in TVET (% of upper secondary)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

28%

28%

29%

28%

29%

30%

30%

Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2011

+1.19 %

21 35
female male  
21 35
female male  
22 36
female male  
21 36
female male  
21 36
female male  
21 38
female male  
22 39
female male  
(ratio 37.5 %) (ratio 37.5 %) (ratio 37.9 %) (ratio 36.8 %) (ratio 36.8 %) (ratio 35.6 %) (ratio 36.1 %)


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Data Centre-beta Country Profiles


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions


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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

Abbreviations

  • CVET - Continuing Vocational Education and Training
  • EQF - European Qualifications Framework
  • IVET - Initial Vocational Education and Training
  • KPMPC - The Qualifications and Vocational Education and Training Development Centre (Kvalifikacijų ir profesinio mokymo plėtros centras)
  • LTQF - Lithuanian qualifications framework
  • NQF - National Qualifications Framework
  • SMM - The Ministry of Education and Science
  • TVET - Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • VET - Vocational Education and training




    Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
    Publication Date: 2014-01-17
    Validated by: Ms Lina Vaitkutė;
    Qualifications and Vocational Education and Training Development Centre;
    Lithuania



page date 2017-05-05

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