World TVET Database - Country Profiles

As of April 2017, a number of updated Country TVET Profiles will be available in a new and more user friendly format with some new features (for example, statistical information).

Morocco

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Morocco
published: 2015-10-01

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

According to the Vocational Training Department (Département de la Formation Professionnelle) (DFP) of the Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training (Ministère de l’Education Nationale et de la Formation Professionnelle) (MNEVT), the mission of TVET is twofold; to fulfil the human resource needs of the economy and to equip students with competencies to access the world of work.


TVET strategy

Developing human resources is regarded by the Government of Morocco as one of the main tools for modernising Moroccan society. Following increases student demands for TVET programmes, the Government has developed a number of TVET related strategies since 2000.

Specifically, the National Strategy for Vocational Training (Stratégie Nationale de la Formation Professionnelle) for the period 2015-2021, and the Vocational Training Vision 2020 aim to increase access to TVET programmes and empower students to access the labour market. The strategic documents highlight the importance of close cooperation between TVET institutions and employers to determine the skills needed in different geographical areas of the country. Accordingly, the government involves employers in TVET planning and requests them to present forecasts for future needs. The strategies also aim to:

  • Strengthen cooperation with chambers of commerce, businesses and professional associations;
  • Increase the practical component of TVET courses by expanding workplace training; and
  • Create new training centres and increase the capacity of the existing ones.

TVET legislation

  • Law No 13 (2000) regulates the provision and accreditation of TVET by Private Vocational Training Establishments (EFPPs).
  • Law 12 (2000) regulates the organisation of apprenticeship training. The Law defines apprenticeships as practical training conducted 80% through on-the-job training and 20% in general and technical education.
  • The National Education and Training Charter, signed in December 1999, defines the aims of TVET as follows: (1) to satisfy the needs of industry; (2) to promote youth employment; and (3) to improve new prospects for employees. Specifically, Article 20 of the NETC stresses that TVET is a national priority. The Charter also addresses continuing education as a mean to meet companies’ human resource needs and emphasises the need to strengthen companies’ performance in the context of globalisation. The Charter recommends the establishment of a contractual continuing education system adapted to the specific characteristics of each professional field.
  • Law 39-96 (1996) regulates alternance training in Morocco.
  • Decree No 2.86.325 (1987) regulates the organisation of Vocational Training Establishments (Établissements de Formation Professionnelle) (EFP).

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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC and extracted from Nuffic (2012). Country Module Morocco.


Upon completing nine years of primary education, students proceed to a secondary education which completes 12 years of schooling. Primary education is composed of two cycles: a first cycle of six year compulsory primary education, and junior education lasting three years.


Formal TVET system

Formal TVET programmes are offered at various stages of the Moroccan education system. Upon completing six years of compulsory primary education, students are able to take TVET specialisation programmes lasting a varied amount of time depending on the type of skills required. Qualification courses are available to students who have completed three years of junior education. Similar to specialisation courses, the duration of courses varies according to the type of skills required. Technical Diploma courses are available to those who have completed secondary education.

At the secondary education level, students are able to choose between attending general and vocational education programmes. The latter programme requires one-third of the programme to have a vocational component. In addition students are taught in general education subjects such as mathematics, modern languages and, depending on the vocational specialization, physics (technical specialisations), chemistry (chemical engineering), biology (specialisations in agriculture) and geography/history (specialisations in economics). Graduates are able to proceed to programmes at the tertiary education level.

Tertiary level TVET programmes are offered at public and private institutions and include:

  • Diploma programmes (Diplôme de Technicien Spécialisé) lasting two years;
  • Advanced Diploma programmes (Brevet de Technicien Supérieur or Adjoint Technique; Specialisé) lasting two years; and
  • A four-year programme in higher professional education, culminating in a Diploma in Applied engineering (Diplôme d’Ingénieur d’Application).
As of 2008 there are 1858 private TVET institutions in Morocco, representing approximately 79 percent of the total TVET institutions. Private TVET institutions are encouraged to cooperate with employers and enterprises and also offer TVET programmes in continuing education.


Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Non-formal TVET in Morocco is taught in the form of residential, alternating and learning programmes. The public sector has introduced alternative training methods (apprenticeship training schemes, evening classes, distance learning), the majority of which are at an experimental stage or are gradually expanding. For instance, the National Office for Vocational Training and the Promotion of Work (L’Office de la Formation Professionnelle et de la Promotion du Travail) (OFPPT) organises evening classes leading to TVET qualifications.

Residential training is provided by public and private providers and takes place in educational institutions providing short-term business courses. Alternating training takes place in businesses (50%) and in Vocational Training Centres (50%). Apprenticeship training consists of on-the-job training (80%) and education in Learning Training Centres (20%).

The informal TVET system plays a significant role in Morocco and casual and undeclared jobs are normally found in the domestic and commercial sectors.


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3. Governance and financing

Governance

The TVET system in Morocco is regulated by the Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training (Ministère de l’Education Nationale et de la Formation Professionnelle) (MNEVT) and the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Ministère de l’Emploi et des Affaires Sociales) (MEAS). The Vocational Training Department (Département de la Formation Professionnelle) (DFP) is responsible for defining and assessing, in consultation with other stakeholders, the direction of national TVET policy. The DFP brings together public institutions attached to various government departments, the National Office for Vocational Training and the Promotion of Work (L’Office de la Formation Professionnelle et de la Promotion du Travail) (OFPPT) and private operators. Other entities responsible for TVET include the National Jobs and Skills Promotion Agency (L'Agence Nationale de Promotion de l'Emploi et des Compétences) (ANAPEC), which has 50 branches and the Labour Department (43 branches).

The National Office for Vocational Training and Work Promotion (OFPPT) is responsible for organising and providing TVET programmes. It has financial autonomy and accommodates regional representatives from all DFPs. Other TVET providers include centres from the Ministry of Agriculture, the Tourism Department, the Maritime Fishing Department and the Small Trades and Crafts Department.

Vocational Training Establishments (EPPs) include Vocational Qualification Centres, Applied Technology Institutions and the Higher Applied Technology Institutions.

Social partners, such as employers and trade unions, provide feedback on Government TVET policy. For instance, different social partners have been involved in the Torino Process analysis on the impact of TVET reform in Morocco.


Financing

The TVET system in Morocco is funded by the Government, sponsors and donors, and private investors. The current budget for TVET is 0.5% of GDP. Public TVET is financed by the vocational training tax and state subsidies. Private TVET programmes are mainly financed by student fees.

The lack of financial resources allocated to the TVET system is partly due to the fact that ineffective collection and reimbursements schemes hinder the allocation of funds.


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4. TVET teachers and trainers

The National Office for Vocational Training and the Promotion of Work (L’Office de la Formation Professionnelle et de la Promotion du Travail) (OFPPT) is responsible for training TVET teachers. Training takes place in Skill Development Centres and covers further training initiatives, teacher training courses and training periods in the workplace.

TVET teachers can enter business and industrial enterprise settings to familiarise themselves with current technologies. TVET teacher exchange programmes also exist with selected African countries as well as Austria, Belgium, Canada, France and Italy.

As of the 2012-2013 academic calendar, there are 18975 trainers in private and public sector institutions, of which 11603 are permanent and 7372 are part-time.


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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks


Secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Specialisation Programme Varies Vocational Specialisation Diploma
Qualification Programme Varies Vocational Qualification Diploma
Technical Programme Varies Technical Diploma
Secondary Education 3 years Technical Baccalaureate

Post-secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Diploma Programme 2 years Technician Specialist Diploma (Diplôme de Technicien Spécialisé)
Advanced Diploma Programme 2 years Advanced Diploma (Brevet de Technicien Supérieur or Adjoint Technique; Specialisé)
High Applied Education 4 years Diploma in Applied engineering (Diplôme d’Ingénieur d’Application)

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

Morocco is currently in the process of developing a National Qualification Framework (NQF) in cooperation with the European Training Foundation (ETF).


Quality assurance

Quality assurance in primary and secondary education is the responsibility of the Regional Academies (AREF), while quality assurance in higher education is under the inspectorate of the Ministry of Higher Education, and other relevant ministries. The National Commission for Accreditation and Evaluation (Commission Nationale d'Accréditation et d'Évaluation) (CNAE) performs advisory tasks upon request and addresses the establishment of tertiary level programmes and the authorisation of conducting academic research.


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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

In 2012, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (Ministère de l’Emploi et des Affaires Sociales) initiated a study aimed at contributing to the development of the National Strategy for Vocational Training (Stratégie Nationale de la Formation Professionnelle) and the Vocational Training Vision 2020. With the result of that study in mind, the Vision aims to develop an integrated strategic TVET vision to ensure that training is flexible and reactive to the needs of the labour market. Training courses will be targeted at youth in order to enhance their employability, career paths, and enable them to participate as active citizens. The programmes will be specifically targeted at vulnerable parts of the population.

The Vision also envisages a number of reforms including:

  • Improving the TVET governance system;
  • Developing links between the strategic and operational side of TVET;
  • Enhancing the organisational, institutional and educational aspects of TVET;
  • Encouraging links between industrial policies, public employment policies and vocational training; and
  • Diversifying sources of funding and improving funding and distribution mechanisms.

Challenges

The rate of drop-outs and examination failures, as well as the high demand for TVET programmes and the high unemployment rate all put pressure on the TVET system. The supply of TVET is still largely non-formal and informal, while training in the form of on-the-job training and apprenticeships remains rare. There is also a significant gap between demand and supply for training (a ratio of about 1 to 5).


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7. Statistical information(*)


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres


TVET Institutions


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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References




Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
Publication Date: 2015-10-01
Validated by: College of Technical Education of Mohammed V Souissi University (ENSET)



page date 2017-02-22

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