World TVET Database - Country Profiles

Madagascar

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Madagascar
published: 2015-10-26

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

According to Article 48 of Law N° 2004-004 concerning the General Orientation of the Education System, Teaching and Training in Madagascar, the mission of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is to train youth and adults for the changing needs of the economy. Specifically, TVET contributes to the socio-economic development of families, regions and Madagascar as a whole.

In line with the framework of the National Employment and Vocational Training Policy (Politique Nationale de l’Emploi et de la formation Professionnelle) (PNEFP), TVET must also contribute and help prepare young Malagasy youth to enter the world of work.

TVET strategy

The TVET strategy in Madagascar is guided by Axe 4 “Human Capital Fit for Development Needs” of the National Development Plan (Plan national de Développement) (PND) which aims to promote a culture of excellence among public services offering education and health care services. Likewise, the vision described in the National Employment and Vocational Training Policy (Politique Nationale de l’Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle) (PNEFP) envisages Madagascar having a high growth economy, with inclusive and socially balanced growth and with a decreased rate of unemployment by 2020.

By implementing the PND, Madagascar hopes to stimulate job creation for employment and gradually reduce the annual changes in the number of jobseekers. The implementation of PNEFP’s vision involves the utilisation of multi-sector strategies and relevant and coherent programmes and government guidelines.

In agreement with the PND’s vision, the implementation of PNEFP also means that almost all Madagascar citizens will be educated and have the capabilities and skills to create or find decent jobs, respecting equal opportunities of access to economic opportunities, eliminating social exclusion and discrimination, specifically gender discrimination and the discrimination of vulnerable groups such as peoples with disabilities.

TVET legislation

The three main legislative documents governing the TVET system in Madagascar are:

  • Law N° 2004-004 concerning the General Orientation of the Education System, Teaching and Training in Madagascar. The Law defines: (1) the basic principles of education and training; (2) the organisation of the education system, and of education and training in Madagascar; (3) the organisation of schools; (4) personnel of the education system, education and training.
  • The National Development Plan (PND) concerning the period 2015-2019 is a development framework based on inclusive growth and sustainable development and defines the role of TVET as a component contributing to the achievement of Axis 4 "Human capital adequate for development needs”.
  • The framework of the National Employment and Vocational Training Policy (PNEFP) defines the vision, goals and strategic priorities to support Madagascar’s development through one of the five priority economic sectors: (1) tourism, hotel and food service industry; (2) Building and Public Works-Strategic Resources; (3) Rural Development; (4) Information Technology and Communication; and (5) Textile-Apparel-Accessories.
The PNEFP was approved by the National Assembly at its second regular session in 2015.

Sources:

  • Government of Madagascar (2004). Law N° 2004-004 concerning the General Orientation of the Education System, Teaching and Training in Madagascar. Antananarivo: Government of Madagascar. Accessed: 03 September 2015.
  • Government of Madagascar (2015). National Development Plan 2015-2019. Antananarivo: Government of Madagascar. Accessed: 03 September 2015.
  • Government of Madagascar (2015). National Employment and Vocational Training Policy. Antananarivo: Government of Madagascar.


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    2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Madagascar. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

At the end of five years of primary education, students proceed to a secondary education which completes 12 years of schooling.

Formal TVET system

TVET is provided in Vocational Training Centres (Centres de Formation Professionnelle) (CFP) and private and public Technical and Vocational High Schools (Lycées Techniques Professionnels) (LTP). Specifically:

  • In CFP students attend secondary education level TVET programmes lasting two years to obtain a Certificate of Apprenticeship (Certificat de Fin d’Apprentissage) (CFA), or attend a three year programme to be awarded the Certificate of Vocational Skills (Certificate d’aptitude professionnel) (CAP). The CFA programme is open to those who have completed three years of primary education, while the CAP programme is only open to those who have completed primary education. CAP graduates proceed to LTP.
  • In LTP, TVET programmes last three years and are only accessible to students who have completed the third year of primary education (on a examination basis) or those who have a CAP. Students can choose between two programmes and are either awarded the Technical Diploma (Brevet Technique) or the Certificate of Vocational Education (Brevet d’Etude Professionnelle) (BEP) and the Vocational Baccalaureate (Baccalauréat Professionnel) (Bac Pro). The latter involves taking the BEP programme and a Technical Baccalaureate (Baccalauréat Technologique) programme in general technical training.
Graduates are required to attend a two-year programme to be awarded the Certificate of Advanced Technician (Brevet de Technicien Supérieur) (BTS).

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

According to Article 25 of Law N° 2004-004 concerning the General Orientation of the Education System, Teaching and Training in Madagascar, non-formal education encompasses all forms of education and training outside of the formal education system. Non-formal education intends to provide education and training opportunities to all those who have fallen outside of the formal education system, and enables people of all ages to acquire professional competencies and general and civic skills.

According to Article 26, non-formal education is an integral part of the overall education system and is organised by concerned Ministries in partnership with civil society, Non-Governmental Organisations, social organisations, the community and others. Non-formal education includes literacy programmes, adult education, and other types of training such as Vocational Training programmes (Formation Professionnelle Qualifiante) and Basic Trades Learning programmes (Apprentissage des Métiers de Base) (AMB) offered in Vocational Training Centres (Centres de Formation Professionnelle) (CFP). Specifically AMB programmes aim to teach skills required for the professionalisation and modernisation of traditional techniques used in the handicrafts, agricultural, animal husbandry, natural resource development and business sectors. They are generally short programmes, depending on student requests. These programmes do not follow a national framework and there are therefore no national examinations. Students also do not require any previous qualifications to join, the only requirement being that students are at least 15 years old.

Sources:

  • Government of Madagascar (2004). Law N° 2004-004 concerning the General Orientation of the Education System, Teaching and Training in Madagascar. Antananarivo: Government of Madagascar. Accessed: 03 September 2015.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Madagascar. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
  • UNESCO-CAPEPT (2014). Programme report. Accessed: 03 September 2015.


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    3. Governance and financing

Governance

The Ministry of Employment and Technical and Vocational Education (Ministère de l’Emploi, de l’Enseignement Technique et de la Formation Professionnelle) (MEETFP) is responsible for TVET in Madagascar. The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique) is responsible for TVET at the tertiary level.

Other sectoral Ministries (agriculture, tourism, animal husbandry, fisheries, industries, and mining) also offer TVET programmes and each award diplomas and/or certificates. Each Ministry has education structures at the national and regional levels. In the last five years, inter-ministerial commissions have harmonised their activities, particularly in the domain of curriculum development.

Financing

Public TVET programmes are primarily financed by a state grant which does not exceed 1% of the total budget allocated to the education sector. Private TVET programmes are financed through tuition fees. The TVET system as a whole also receives funding from businesses.

The last major TVET project (Project to Strengthen Technical Training) was initiated from 1994 to 1999 and was financed by the World Bank. Since, there have been a number of sporadic interventions by donors such as the African Development Bank (ADB), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), International Organisation of La Francophonie (OIF), and UNESCO.

Non-Governmental Organisations and foreign associations also intervene financially in Basic Trades Learning programmes (AMB) for the youth and disabled.

Sources:

  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Madagascar. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    4. TVET teachers and trainers

TVET teacher and trainer training is provided by Technical Teacher Training Colleges (École normale supérieure d’enseignement technique) (ENSET). Teacher training programmes normally last five years for students taking the Scientific or Technical Baccalaureate programme, and two years for students who wish to have a license. The Teacher Certificate for Teaching Skills (Certificat d’Aptitude Pédagogique de l’Ecole Normale) (CAPEN) is awarded at the end of the programmes.

The National Institute for Professional Training in TVET (L’Institut National de Formation du Personnel des Etablissements d’Enseignement Technique et de Formation Professionnelle) (INFor) is affiliated to the Ministry of Employment and Technical and Vocational Education and ensures the continuous training of TVET teachers and trainers. INFor primarily provides training in education psychology, digital technology and contributes to the technical improvement of some sectors.

Partners of the Ministry of Employment and Technical and Vocational Education also provide ad hoc programmes in, amongst others, management training, training methodology, maintenance and auto mechanics, and training in metal works.

Sources:

  • Government of Madagascar (1992). Decree n° 92-431 of 02 April 1992 concerning the creation of the Centre of Human Resources for Technical and Vocational Education. Antananarivo: Government of Madagascar.


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    5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
First Cycle of Secondary TVET 2 years/ 3 years Certificate of Apprenticeship (CFA)/ Certificate of Vocational Skills (CAP)
Second Cycle of Secondary TVET 3 years Certificate of Vocational Education (BEP)/Vocational Baccalaureate (Bac Pro)

Post-secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
First Cycle of Tertiary TVET 2 years/ 3 years Certificate of Advanced Technician (BTS)
National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

Madagascar does not have a National Qualifications Framework (NQF). However the National Employment and Vocational Training Policy (Politique Nationale de l’Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle) (PNEFP) does provide a framework for the future NQF’s development and implementation.

Quality assurance

In the Ministry of Employment and Technical and Vocational Education, a department is responsible for quality assurance. Specifically the department is responsible for the standard of TVET facilities, and the accreditation of TVET programmes.

Sources:

  • Government of Madagascar (2015). Decree N° 2015-267 fixing the attributions of the Ministry of Employment and Technical and Vocational Education, as well as the general organisation of the Ministry. Antananarivo: Government of Madagascar. Accessed: 03 September 2015.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Madagascar. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

In 2014 the Ministry of Employment and Technical and Vocational Education, as well as other Ministries, private sector stakeholders, civil society organisations and other donors came together to develop the National Employment and Vocational Training Policy (Politique Nationale de l’Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle) (PNEFP), and the Strategies for Skills Development (Stratégies Sectorielles de développement des Compétences) (SSDC). These documents form the basis for reforming the TVET sector, and are made up of a number of strategic components and axes:

Component 1: The development of competencies for the improvement of the employability of human resources

  • Axe 1: Reforming TVET governance;
  • Axe 2: Financing of TVET reforms;
  • Axe 3: Building a relevant information system on the labour market and vocational training;
  • Axe 4: Harmonising certification and training;
  • Axe 5: Developing means of intervention to make TVET more equitable and adapted to future challenges; and
  • Axe 6: Improving training programmes to join and re-join the labour market.
Component 2: Promote conditions/measures favourable for the creation and promotion of employment

  • Axe 7: Boosting the labour market by engaging private sector job-creation; and
  • Axe 8: Promoting the implementation of labour laws.
Sources:

  • Government of Madagascar (2015). National Development Plan 2015-2019. Antananarivo: Government of Madagascar. Accessed: 03 September 2015.


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    7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

21.08
21.68
22.29
22.93
23.57
24.24
Average yearly population growth rate 2010 - 2015

+2.99 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
10.58 10.50
female male  
10.88 10.80
female male  
11.19 11.11
female male  
11.50 11.43
female male  
11.82 11.75
female male  
12.15 12.08
female male  

50.19 %

50.18 %

50.17 %

50.16 %

50.15 %

50.15 %






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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions

  • Ministry of Employment and Technical and Vocational Education
  • Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research


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    9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

Abbreviations

  • ADB - African Development Bank
  • AMB - Basic Trades Learning programmes (Apprentissage des Métiers de Base)
  • Bac Pro - Vocational Baccalaureate (Baccalauréat Professionnel)
  • BEP - Certificate of Vocational Education (Brevet d’Etude Professionnelle)
  • BTS - Certificate of Advanced Technician (Brevet de Technicien Supérieur)
  • CAPEN - Teacher Certificate for Teaching Skills (Certificat d’Aptitude Pédagogique de l’Ecole Normale)
  • CFA - Certificate of Apprenticeship (Certificat de Fin d’Apprentissage)
  • CFP - Vocational Training Centres (Centres de Formation Professionnelle)
  • ENSET - Technical Teacher Training Colleges (École normale supérieure d’enseignement technique)
  • INFor - National Institute for Professional Training in TVET (L’Institut National de Formation du Personnel des Etablissements d’Enseignement Technique et de Formation Professionnelle)
  • LTP - Technical and Vocational High Schools (Lycées Techniques Professionnels)
  • MEETFP - Ministry of Employment and Technical and Vocational Education (Ministère de l’Emploi, de l’Enseignement Technique et de la Formation Professionnelle)
  • NQF - National Qualifications Framework
  • OIF - International Organisation of La Francophonie
  • PND -National Development Plan (Plan national de Développement)
  • PNEFP - National Employment and Vocational Training Policy (Politique Nationale de l’Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle)
  • SSDC - Strategies for Skills Development (Stratégies Sectorielles de développement des Compétences)
  • TVET - Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • UNDP - United Nations Development Programme




    Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
    Publication Date: 2015-10-26
    Validated by: National Institute for Professional Training in TVET (INFor)



page date 2017-05-05

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