World TVET Database - Country Profiles

As of April 2017, a number of updated Country TVET Profiles will be available in a new and more user friendly format with some new features (for example, statistical information).

Myanmar

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Myanmar
published: 2014-04-13

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

TVET’s mission aligns with the nation’s goals towards the development of nation-building knowledge and the training of technicians, skilled workers and proficient individuals with practical knowledge so that they can contribute to state and nation-building endeavours.

TVET strategy

The TVET national strategy runs congruent with the socioeconomic development patterns of Myanmar. In 1998, the educational reforms including TVET focused on the following aspects:

  • the decentralisation of responsibilities under pre-existing ministries;
  • content reform and preventive lifelong learning;
  • skills development; and
  • the creation of a credit system.
TVET legislation

There are two major laws that lay the bedrock for TVET policies:

  • the 1973 Basic Education Law lays foundations for vocational education, emphasises teaching of applied sciences, the arts and lays a foundation for the pursuit of university education.
  • the 1974 Technical, Agricultural and Vocational Education Law (amended in 1989) outlines the activities of the Department of Technical and Vocational Education under the Ministry of Science and Technology.
Sources:

  • Mar, N. Y. (2009). Strengthening TVET to Achieve Lifelong Learning for All: Historical Snapshots and Recent Initiatives in Myanmar. International Handbook of Education for the Changing World of Work, pp. 703-719.
  • Si Thu, K. H., (2011). Myanmar. In Emerging Challenges and Trends in TVET in the Asia-Pacific Region, S. Majumdar (Ed.). pp. 157-162. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/2011. Myanmar. Geneva: UNESCO IBE.


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    2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/2011. Myanmar. Geneva: UNESCO IBE.

Formal TVET System

In 2004, the educational reforms changed basic education from ten to eleven grades with five years of primary and six years of secondary schooling. Home Science and Trade Schools are an option for students who drop out of schools during their primary years. These schools assist in bridging the gap between the worlds of school and work. Vocational subjects are first introduced in vocational schools, technical high schools or agricultural high schools. Trade schools offer shorter and part-time evening courses in order to accommodate a working schedule.

Post-Secondary TVET courses

A wide range of courses in field such as mechanics and electronics are offered as post-secondary TVET under the Ministry of Industry:

Afterwards students can complete a Basic Education High School Examination that allows them to attend:

  • Government Technical Institutes;
  • State Agricultural Institutes; or
  • Commercial Schools.
Another option after completing secondary school is to enrol in a technical college or university. The goal of this system is to nurture a skilled workforce for the nation’s public and private sectors. Technical colleges or universities offer qualifications as follows:

  • an Associateship of Government Technical Institute (AGTI) after two years,
  • a Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) after four years; or
  • a Bachelor of Engineering after five years.
Non-formal and informal TVET systems

The Myanmar Educational Research Bureau (MERB) oversees non-formal education in Myanmar. The non-formal TVET courses provide selected types of learning to sub-groups in the population such as handicapped persons, rural populations, school drop-outs and out-of-school youth, and unemployed or underprivileged youth. These programmes are offered by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and international organisations. They cover literacy, training for tackling socioeconomic problems, and occupational skills.

Although the informal TVET System remains currently under-documented, research on the non-formal TVET system suggests that teaching and training in the local languages plays a significant role in meeting the employment needs of youth and adults in rural areas.

Sources:

  • Mar, N. Y. (2009). Strengthening TVET to Achieve Lifelong Learning for All: Historical Snapshots and Recent Initiatives in Myanmar. International Handbook of Education for the Changing World of Work, pp. 703-719.
  • Myanmar Ministry of Education (1992). Education in Myanmar. 43rd UNESCO-IBE International Conference on Education.
  • Si Thu, K. H., (2011). Myanmar. In Emerging Challenges and Trends in TVET in the Asia-Pacific Region, S. Majumdar (Ed.). pp. 157-162. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/2011. Myanmar. Geneva: UNESCO IBE.


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    3. Governance and financing

Governance

The Ministry of Science and Technology oversees TVET.

The Department of Technical and Vocational Education (DTVE) is responsible for the development of technical education, training middle/level technicians, , offering programmes that link education with work experience, setting priorities for occupations and skills most useful in practical fields, organising vocational training programmes for school leavers, implementing policies and guidelines, planning for the expansion of schools, and the build-up of highly qualified and proficient teachers and taking charge of budgetary matters. DTVE also administers vocational schools, technical high schools and agricultural high schools. The technical education committee and vocational education committee monitor activities in these schools.

The Technical and Vocational Education Council determines the policy framework.

General TVET training is undertaken in government technical institutes and training specific for skilled workers or basic craftsmen is conducted in technical high schools.

Financing

The Ministry of Education (MOE) is responsible for providing funding contributions to various communities. Under the current system of resource allocation, the Ministry of National Planning determines priorities for resource allocation. Subsequently, these priorities are translated into budgets for line Ministries.

The budgets received by line Ministries are more likely to be determined by the amount allocated during the previous year. The current approach of funding relies more on manpower planning rather than the needs of the labour market. There is also limited understanding of unit costs and activity based budgeting and how these vary across different TVET programmes.

The Employment and Skill Development Act defines funding for skills development in the workplace.

Sources:

  • Si Thu, K. H., (2011). Myanmar. In Emerging Challenges and Trends in TVET in the Asia-Pacific Region, S. Majumdar (Ed.). pp. 157-162. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/2011. Myanmar. Geneva: UNESCO IBE.


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    4. TVET teachers and trainers

Since the formation of the DTVE, TVET teacher training courses are aligned with the training offered on teacher training courses for primary and lower secondary level teachers.

There are two TVET Teacher Training Centres under the Ministry of Science and Technology, three TVET Teacher Training Centres under the Ministry of Labour and six TVET Teacher Training Centres under the Ministry of Industry.

Myanmar aims to develop training institutions which can respond immediately to training/ education demand from the labour market.

Sources:

  • Si Thu, K. H., (2011). Myanmar. In Emerging Challenges and Trends in TVET in the Asia-Pacific Region, S. Majumdar (Ed.). pp. 157-162. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/2011. Myanmar. Geneva: UNESCO IBE.


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    5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

The system of TVET accreditation and a NQF are in the early stages of development.

Sources:

  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/2011. Myanmar. Geneva: UNESCO IBE.


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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

Recent projects and reforms focus on Technical and Vocational Education for Youth Employment and the establishment of a training concept.

Challenges

Challenges currently faced by the TVET sector in Myanmar include the following:

  • increasing globalisation;
  • development of new technologies;
  • changing patterns of work;
  • mismatch between training and skills;
  • mismatch between demand and supply;
  • lack of adequate industry participation;
  • insufficient number of trainers;
  • inadequate vocational training infrastructure;
  • low employment outcome of graduates;
  • poor relationship with industry/employers and institutions; and
  • lack of a tripartite (government, employer and worker) approach.
Sources:

  • Mar, N. Y. (2009). Strengthening TVET to Achieve Lifelong Learning for All: Historical Snapshots and Recent Initiatives in Myanmar. International Handbook of Education for the Changing World of Work, pp. 703-719.
  • Si Thu, K. H., (2011). Myanmar. In Emerging Challenges and Trends in TVET in the Asia-Pacific Region, S. Majumdar (Ed.). pp. 157-162. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/2011. Myanmar. Geneva: UNESCO IBE.


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    7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

50.18
50.50
50.83
51.17
51.54
51.93
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+0.7 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
25.74 24.45
female male  
25.93 24.57
female male  
26.12 24.71
female male  
26.32 24.86
female male  
26.52 25.02
female male  
26.73 25.20
female male  

51.29 %

51.34 %

51.39 %

51.43 %

51.46 %

51.47 %



Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions

  • Ministry of Education Department of Higher Education (Lower Myanmar)
  • Southeast Ministers of Education Organisation


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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

Further reading

Abbreviations

  • AGTI - Associateship of Government Technical Institute
  • B.Tech - Bachelor of Technology
  • DTVE - Department of Technical and Vocational Education
  • MERB - Myanmar Educational Research Bureau
  • MOE - Ministry of Education
  • NGOs - Non-governmental Organisations
  • MOI - Ministry of Industry
  • MOL - Ministry of Labour
  • MOST - Ministry of Science and Technology




    Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
    Publication Date: 2014-04-13
    Validated by: Ministry of Science and Technology, Department of Technical and Vocational Education (MoST, DTVE)



page date 2017-02-22

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