World TVET Database - Country Profiles

Mozambique

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Mozambique
published: 2016-11-15

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

The mission of technical and vocational education and training (TVET), known in Mozambique as professional technical education (Ensino Técnico Profissional e Vocacional), is to increase access to education and training, and to enable students to acquire relevant and quality training to meet the needs of the formal and informal labour markets.


TVET strategy

The Government of Mozambique is prioritising investing in human capacity through education and training with the aim of reducing poverty in the country, improving the quality of life, and to upgrade the scientific and technical skills of Mozambique’s citizens. As such TVET is an important component in the recently created Ministry of Science, Technology, Higher Education Professional Training.

Specifically the Education Strategy (2012-2016) emphasises, amongst other things, the need to improve access, the relevance and the quality of TVET to contribute to the country’s development. In order to attain this objective the strategy proposes a number of interventions, including to:

  • Improve the quality of equipment in schools;
  • Construct TVET centres in rural areas;
  • Increase the number of short term programmes offered;
  • Encourage greater private sector involvement;
  • Link TVET programmes to the needs of the formal and informal labour markets; and
  • Improve the TVET governance system, specifically focusing on administration and quality.
The Professional Technical Education Strategy (2002-2011) also emphasised the need to improve the quality of TVET system in order to better equip Mozambicans with technical and vocational skills to meet the needs of the labour market, and contribute to Mozambique’s economic and social development.


TVET legislation

  • The Vocational Education Law (2014) establishes the National Professional Education Authority (ANEP) which will regulate qualifications in the TVET system in Mozambique.
  • Law 6/92 (1992) concerning the national education system establishes the Mozambican education system, including the provision of TVET. The Law also sets the objectives of the TVET system and calls on it to provide children and youth with the necessary skills to improve their lives and contribute to the country’s development.
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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC and based on UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education, VII Ed. 2010/11, Mozambique. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


Following seven years of primary education, students proceed to a secondary education which completes twelve years of education. Specifically the secondary education level is split between the academic and TVET streams.


Formal TVET system

TVET programmes are offered at the secondary education level in technical schools and institutes. Specifically at the secondary junior education cycle, students are able to enrol in a three year TVET programme in one of the following areas: commerce; industry; and agriculture. The junior level programme aims to train skilled workers for the labour market. Students who have successfully completed the junior secondary education level can proceed to a senior secondary TVET programme lasting three years. These types of programmes aim to train technicians.

The senior secondary TVET programme is also open to applicants who have completed academic junior secondary programmes. Students who have graduated from senior secondary TVET programmes are able to attend tertiary programmes.


Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Non-formal TVET programmes are offered in the form of short term vocational training programmes provided by institutions under the responsibility of the Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social Security (MITRAB) and led by the National Institute for Employment and Professional Training Institutes (INEFP). The institutions under the MITRAB and INEFP are public and private.

Non-formal TVET programmes are targeted to youth who have dropped out of primary and secondary school, and is offered to promote vocational training and lifelong learning. Non-formal TVET programmes cover three major areas: commerce; industry; and agriculture. There are ongoing improvements to the non-formal education system, including attempts to recognise non-formal education in the national qualification framework (NQF) through a Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) system.

Despite the presence of a significant informal sector in Mozambique, limited information was found on the informal TVET system.


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3. Governance and financing

Governance

The TVET system in Mozambique is governed by the Ministry of Science, Technology, Higher Education and Professional Training (MCTESTP) and the Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social Security (MITRAB) through the National Institute for Employment and Professional Training Institutes (INEFP). The INEFP is mainly responsible for non-formal TVET programmes.

The National Directorate for Professional Technical Education (DINET), under the MCTESTP, is responsible for the formal TVET system. DINET’s responsibilities include policy development, and material and curriculum design and revision.


Financing

TVET is primarily financed by the Government – between eight and ten percent of the education budget is allocated to TVET. Despite this significant investment, the quality of TVET programmes remains low. In order to guarantee the quality and expansion of TVET over the medium and long term, the Government is encouraging investment from other sources of finance including the private sector.

Apart from direct Government financing, TVET is also financed through the National Professional Education Fund, a mechanism used to collect and manage the financial contributions made to TVET. This fund is financed by a number of stakeholders. For example, industry is required to contribute up to one percent of its payroll to the fund.


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4. TVET teachers and trainers

The Superior Institute of Dom Bosco is responsible for training TVET teachers and trainers. The training courses are organised on a modular basis and programme last four years. At the end of the course, graduates are awarded a Diploma. In order to be admitted to the programme, students are required to hold a Master degree or certificate, or a Doctorate degree.


Sources:

  • Superior Institute of Dom Bosco (2015). Homepage. Accessed: 20.10.2015.


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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Junior secondary level 3 years Basic vocational certificate
Senior secondary level 3 years Vocational certificate 3, 4, 5

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

In order to administer the various vocational qualifications offered by the different Government ministries and private providers, the National Qualification Framework in Mozambique aims to map the various entry and exit pathways in the Mozambican TVET system. The vocational NQF has five levels and is structured as follows:

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC and based on feedback from the National Directorate for Professional Technical Education (DINET).

Learning and training at the first two levels involves building basic knowledge and skills and is not always geared towards specific occupations or the corresponding qualifications.


Quality assurance

TVET programme quality assurance is the responsibility of the National Professional Education Authority (ANEP). The main instrument used to ensure the quality of programmes is the vocational NQF. The purpose of NQF mechanisms in Mozambique is to ensure that TVET programmes are ‘fit for purpose’, that the institutions providing TVET programmes are competent, and that the awarding of qualifications is quality assured. Each level in the NQF has level descriptors which specify the learning outcomes.

Each vocational qualification is referenced to industry occupational standards in the three main industries: commerce, industry and agriculture. The process for developing a curriculum is as follows:

  • Institutions need to justify the need to establish a new qualification;
  • Institutions need to follow rules when writing curriculum modules; and
  • Qualifications undergo external verification (validation).
A relatively new concept in Mozambique is the development of a system of credit accumulation and transfer, establishing how many hours students are required to be taught to be eligible to sit an examination to receive a qualification.


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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

The Integrated Vocational Reform Programme (PIREP) aims to establish, with the involvement of other social partners and stakeholders, an integrated, coherent, flexible and labour market driven vocational education system. The PIREP is structured in a number of phases, as follows: 1) piloting phase (2006-2011); 2) expansion phase (2012-2016); and 3) consolidation phase (2017-2021). The PIREP focuses on:

  • Reorganising the governance and finance structures, with an emphasis on decentralisation. One of the recommendations of the PIREP is the establishment of an Institutional Framework for Governance and Management;
  • Developing an integrated Framework of Qualifications and Training Based on Competency Standards;
  • Increasing the capacity and improving the quality of TVET institutions; and
  • Increasing access to TVET programmes, particularly in the rural areas and informal sector.
The PIREP is administered by a number of commissions and boards including the Inter-Ministerial Commission for TVET Reform, the National Public-Private Board for TVET Reform and other cooperating partners. The programme is financed by international and national actors.


Challenges

The main challenges to the TVET sector in Mozambique are to:

  • Diversify TVET programmes to respond to the demands of priority and emerging economic sectors;
  • Improve the quality of TVET programmes to increase the employability of students in the formal and informal sectors;
  • Establish a regulatory framework to ensure the quality of TVET programmes;
  • Encourage more interactions between training centres and employers in the field of curriculum development; and
  • Diversify the sources of financing for the TVET system.
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7. Statistical information(*)


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions


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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References




page date 2014-12-19

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