World TVET Database - Country Profiles
|TVET Country Profile|
| 1. TVET mission|
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
7. Statistical information
1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy
The Education and Human Resource Development Plan 2008 – 2020 (EHRSP) recognises TVET as an instrument for meeting labour market needs in skilled manpower. TVET is considered key in making Mauritius a competitive, global player and fighting poverty. The Plan acknowledges current weaknesses of TVET and calls for reforms aimed at improving governance, access, financing, quality, relevance, private sector participation and acquisition of skills in a non-formal and informal way.
The overall goal is to create an “efficient and effective TVET system responsive to the present and future needs by providing a skilled and flexible workforce for sustainable development.”
To achieve this goal, the Plan defines six strategic goals:
- Increase access and improve equity in TVET;
- Improve articulation between TVET and general education;
- Enhance the quality and relevance of TVET;
- Strengthen management of the TVET system;
- Sustain funding for TVET; and
- Make Mauritius a Regional Hub for TVET.
The new Strategy will be implemented in two phases and will consist of: preparing the syllabus; holding workshops with stakeholders; writing, piloting and finalising the teaching and learning materials; teacher training and working on programme assessment and certification. The time framework for the project starts in 2012 with implementation to be achieved by 2015. Pre-vocational education will become a four year programme - two days per week spent at the Mauritius Institute of Training and Development (MITD) and three days per week in secondary schools for the third year as of 2013, and two days per week in secondary schools and three days per week at the MITD as of 2014.
The new strategy is based on the following pillars.
Pillar 1: Extension of programme duration;
Pillar 2: New Curriculum;
Pillar 4: Bridging the Gap Programme;
Pillar 5: Capacity Building for teachers and Heads of Schools;
Pillar 6: Quality Assurance;
Pillar 7: Assessment & Certification;
Pillar 8: Tracking and Monitoring Mechanism to prevent drop-out;
Pillar 9: Reinforced psychological back up and support.
The responsibility of the State to provide education is enshrined in the Constitution of 1968. The main legal document guiding education at all levels is the Education Act of 1996. The Industrial and Vocational Training (IVT) Act was amended to provide a separation of regulatory powers which gave authority over TVET to the Mauritius Qualifications Authority (MQA). The MQA was established by the Mauritius Qualifications Authority Act of 2011, while Act No. 27 of 2003 established the Human Resource Development Council (HRDC). The Mauritius Institute of Training and Development (MITD) was established by Act No. 12 of 2009.
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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems
Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from Roland Dubois, 2011.
Formal TVET system
Primary education starts at the age of six and lasts for six years. At the end of grade 6, students sit the Certificate of Primary Education (CPE) examination which grants access to the secondary level. Students who fail the exam twice or reach the age of 12 before passing the exam can follow the pre-vocational education track.
At secondary level, pre-vocational education lasts three years and is a collaborative venture between the Government and private TVET providers. It aims at schooling students with an academic deficit and preparing them through development of skills necessary for further vocational training. After completing three years of pre-vocational education, students take the National Foundation Certificate (NCF) course which lasts one year and grants them access to further vocational paths. Students who completed at least three years of general secondary education (Form III) are also eligible to follow the same paths (apprenticeships, trade examinations, etc.).
Tertiary education is offered at universities and several post-secondary institutions. Universities grant certificates, diplomas, undergraduate and post-graduate degrees in a wide range of subjects. TVET providers at tertiary level include the Mauritius Institute of Training and Development (MITD), the Swami Dayanand Institute of Management (SDIM) and the Institut Supérieur de Technologie (IST). SDIM offer two-year programmes in information systems and business administration, while the IST offers three-year programmes that lead to a University Diploma.
Based on the German dual-system, the Apprenticeship Scheme was introduced by the Mauritius Institute of Training and Development (MITD) in 1996. The Scheme requires trainees to spend four to five days a week acquiring practical skills in a company, with one day reserved for theoretical learning at a TVET institution run by MITD. The apprenticeship lasts one to two years and leads to the National Trade Certificate/National Certificate. Employers pay their trainees a monthly allowance which is 50% or 60 % of the minimum wage (for a one and two year apprenticeship respectively). In return, the MITD compensates employers by reimbursing them 50% of the incurred expenses.
Non-formal and informal TVET systems
The Training and Placement Scheme was introduced in 2009 and is run jointly by the National Empowerment Foundation (NEF), employers and training providers. The programme combines in-house and work-related formal training aimed at developing skills relevant to the needs of the labour market. NEF contributes financially to training cost and trainees’ allowances which aims to create an incentive for employers to participate in the programme. In return, the employers are encouraged to hire 3 out of 4 participants in the end of the work placement.
Mauritius Qualifications Authority Act 2001 stipulates that the Mauritius Qualifications Authority (MQA) “recognise and validate competencies for purposes of certification obtained outside the formal education and training systems”. Therefore, the MQA developed a model and policy for Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) which were launched in 2009. RPL is recognised so far in four sectors – tourism, construction, plumbing and printing.
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3. Governance and financing
The Ministry of Education and Human Resources ensures cooperation between three bodies in charge of different aspects of TVET.
- Mauritius Qualifications Authority (MQA);
- Human Resource Development Council (HRDC); and
- Mauritius Institute of Training and Development (MITD).
- Develop, implement and maintain the National Qualifications Framework (NQF);
- Ensure compliance with provisions for registration and accreditation of training institutions;
- Ensure that standards and registered qualifications are internationally comparable;
- Recognise and evaluate qualifications for the purpose of establishing their equivalence; and
- Recognise and validate [[gl:Competence/y|competencies] acquired outside the formal education and training systems.
HRDC fulfils the following functions:
- Advise the Minister on the formulation of human resource development policies and strategies;
- Establish linkages between the education and training systems and the workplace;
- Provide a forum for constant dialogue and consensus building among stake holders on all matters related to human resource development;
- Take appropriate measures to reduce the mismatch between demand and supply of human resource;
- Commission research in the field of human resource development;
- Encourage employers to invest in the training of their employees with a view to upgrading their skills and acquiring new skills;
- Initiate and monitor studies on the relevance and impact of training activities in relation to the socio-economic development of the country;
- Promote knowledge management and benchmarking at enterprise and national levels with a view to improving the effectiveness of human resource development;
- Identify and monitor the implementation of appropriate skills development and apprenticeship schemes and programs;
- Monitor the participation of employers, employees and job seekers in training schemes and programs;
- Develop schemes for retraining and multi skilling;
- Provide incentives for training institutions to acquire and upgrade their equipment and facilities;
- Manage the National Training Fund; and
- Perform such other functions as are necessary to further the objects of the council.”
Its responsibilities are to:
- Promote excellence in technical, vocational education and training;
- Promote research and enhance knowledge in technical, vocational education and training;
- Increase access to technical, vocational education and training through the setting up of training centres;
- Promote exchange programmes and courses with other institutions in technical, vocational education and training; and
- Assist in the apprenticeship of persons who are, or will be, employed in commercial, technical and vocational fields.
The main source of funding for TVET comes from government grants. In addition, the Human Resource Development Council (HRDC) operates the levy/grant system where training expenses are refunded up to a certain ceiling to encourage employers to invest in their human resources. The grant system is run on a cost-sharing principle whereby the HRDC and the employers share the cost of training.
TVET institutions also receive funding allocated in the national budget; raise funds through training fees and internally-generated income.
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4. TVET teachers and trainers
TVET trainers are usually employed either on a contractual basis or on establishment by the Mauritius Institute of Training and Development (MITD). Their pay structure and conditions of service are governed by the Pay Research Bureau (which oversees pay conditions and structure of civil service and parastatal bodies in Mauritius). Staff development is ensured through the Training of the Trainers Course initially developed in collaboration with experts from India, mainly focusing on pedagogical skills. As an organisation that upholds life-long learning, MITD developed a Learning Development Strategy (LDS) that enables training and development of its entire staff. In this respect, a budget of 4% of recurrent expenditure is yearly earmarked to improve organisational performance. Under the scheme, a number of staff attended conferences, seminars and training programmes, both locally and overseas. In addition, health and safety training is part of most training programmes.
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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks
National Qualifications Framework (NQF)
The Mauritius National Qualifications Framework (NQF) comprises of 10 levels starting with the primary stage and finishing with the PhD level. NQF aims to promote access, strengthen international competitiveness and student motivation. It offers a framework on progression routes and minimises duplication and overlap of qualifications. Furthermore, it promotes stakeholder confidence in the relevance and integrity of national qualifications; and promotes lifelong learning. Students who successfully complete TVET training are awarded a certificate (level 2-5) or a diploma (level 6).
(Source: Mauritius Qualifications Authority, 2012)
The Mauritius Qualifications Authority (MQA) is the main body in charge of quality assurance in TVET. In 2012, MQA published new requirements for registration of training institutions, managers/programme officers, trainers, courses and programmes which all have to meet a set of requirements to receive official accreditation. Following accreditation, MQA carries out monitoring activities which are complementary to providers’ internal monitoring and reviewing mechanisms. MQA is authorised to visit –with or without prior notice – any accredited TVET institution to inspect registers or documents.
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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges
Current reforms and major projects
In line with the Education and Human Resource Development Plan (EHRSP) 2008 -2020, the Government is reforming the curriculum of pre-vocational training. From 2012, a new pre-vocational curriculum will be implemented. The implementation framework is four years and changes will integrate the NTC Foundation module and give access to the National Certificate Level 3.
With regard to challenges for TVET, the EHRSP points out the following:
- There is a poor perception of the value and status of TVET programmes;
- Training provision is in some cases supply-led and needs to be aligned with labour market needs;
- Too many certification awarding systems leading to confusion at the level of end users;
- Problems of regional as well as international recognition of certificates are inherent;
- There is a tendency to use TVET to react to present needs rather than building capabilities for the future;
- The employment rates of graduates in some trades are relatively low;
- The technical, vocational education and training system is not well integrated. A fragmented approach has led to poor co-ordination between skills providers leading to duplication and gaps;
- TVET has remained trainer centred, whilst the trend is now more towards learner-centred pedagogy;
- Access to TVET is limited;
- Relatively low female participation in TVET programmes coupled with a concentration in a few trades;
- It is difficult to recruit trainers in certain trades leading to trainers with insufficient industrial experience. On the other hand, a high turnover of trainers has been noted in certain trades;
- Insufficient funding is allocated to TVET; and
- Not enough autonomy exists at the level of training centres.
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7. Statistical information(*)
Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision
Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on World Bank Database
Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on ILO: Key Indicators of the Labour Market
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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions
- Human Resources Unit, Ministry of Education, Culture & Human Resources
- MITD Mauritius Institute of Training and Development
- International Labour Organisation (2010). Qualifications Frameworks: Implementation and Impact. Background case study on Mauritius. Geneva: ILO.
- Mauritius Qualification Authority (2012). Standards 2012.pdf Quality Assurance Standards for training Institutions.
- Mauritius Qualification Authority (2012). Services/NQF.aspx The National Qualification Framework.
- UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Mauritius. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
- Webpage of the Mauritius Institute of Training and Development.
- Webpage of the Updates/RPL.aspx Mauritius Qualification Authority on the Recognition of Prior Learning.
- Web-page of Human Resource Development Council.
- Web-page of Mauritius Institute of Training and Development.
- Webpage of the Mauritius Qualifications Authority.
- EHRSP - Education and Human Resource Development Plan
- HRDC - Human Resource Development Council
- IST - Institut Supérieur de Technologie
- MITD - Mauritius Institute of Training and Development
- MQA - Mauritius Qualifications Authority
- NQF - National Qualifications Framework
- RPL - Recognition of Prior Learning
- SDIM - Swami Dayanand Institute of Management
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