World TVET Database - Country Profiles


TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
published: 2014-01-16

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET strategy

The School Sector Reform Plan 2009-2015 (SSRP) aims to equip students with employable skills that will accelerate their transition from school to work and help them explore a variety of career opportunities that are available inside Nepal as well as in the neighbouring countries and in the global market.

The SSRP gives policy directions as follows:

  • increasing opportunities for TVET to disadvantaged students, through the development of various programme delivery modalities. The provision of scholarships and soft student loans to targeted groups can also help improve access;
  • assuring the quality and relevance of TVET programmes to the world of work;
  • promoting cooperation and collaboration amongst TVET and higher education institutions;
  • promoting public-private partnership (PPP) for increasing investment on TVET and higher education, especially for targeted groups; and
  • bridging non-formal education with vocational skills development for marginalised girls by utilising on Community Learning Centres (CLCs) under the broader scheme of Skills for Employment.
The TVET Policy of 2012 focuses on youth and adult manpower who were taken out or not admitted to school, are illiterate or have not obtained any kind of skills either through TVET system. The Policy seeks to expand opportunities of TVET on a national scale. It aims to provide skill-oriented and labour market-oriented education and training, expand training opportunities (fourfold increase over ten years) and ensure access and inclusion of women, Dalits, ethnic groups, Madhesi and deprived communities from across the country. Groups unable to afford training fees may participate in entry training and a policy providing financial assistance will be put in place.

The Policy foresees the development of a revamped Nepal Vocational Qualifications system managed by the National Skills Testing Board. Occupational careers can be realised by a worker with a combination of initial training, subsequent occupational experience and further training of various kinds. All modes and places of learning, formal or informal, in-school or on-the-job can and will be recognised in such a system and can be used for progression and transition.

The Policy focuses on the five following areas; specific strategies have been drawn up to achieve each one of them:

  • expansion: to expand training opportunities and services;
  • inclusion and access: to give access to training to all citizens in need and to ensure opportunity for receiving training to all;
  • integration: to integrate various training modes and training providers into one system;
  • quality and relevance: to link training contents and training outcomes with economic demands; and
  • funding: to ensure sustainable funding for technical education and vocational training.
TVET legislation

  • The Education Act of 1971 (8th Amendment of 2004) establishes a framework for education in Nepal. It defines terminology, curricula and text books; sets rules for establishing schools, conducting controls and examinations; specifies types of secondary schools, special education, non-formal education, and distance education. Further, the Act focuses on the structure of education departments and financial aspects of education.
  • The Higher Secondary Education Act of 1989 (2nd Amendment of 1993) empowers the Higher Secondary Education Board to implement higher secondary education.

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    2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education Ed VII 2010/11. Nepal.

Primary education starts at the age of five, lasts for five years and finishes with an exam which determines access to secondary education. Secondary education is divided into three levels – low secondary; secondary; and higher secondary. According to the Schools Sector Reform Programme (SSRP), primary education and the lower secondary level are basic education.

Formal TVET system

After lower secondary, students can opt for two-year vocational training, which leads to the Technical School Leaving Certificate. At higher secondary level, students can specialise in science, commerce, humanities and education following programmes that last 2 to 2.5 years. Short-term programmes (1 year) and short-term courses in skill development are also available. Each of the three levels of secondary educations finishes with a final exam.

Programmes at this level are offered in four fields – general, professional, technical and Sanskrit. Universities offer a range of 3- to 4- year bachelor programmes, 1-year post-graduate diplomas and 3-year doctoral programmes.

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

According to the Non-Formal Education Policy of 2006, non-formal education faced a lack of management, consensus, as well as programme implementation and coordination. There was the need to make non-formal education programmes available to excluded sections of the community and designing programmes for persons and groups of different learning needs and abilities. As a result of these challenges the Non-Formal Education Policy of 2006 was formulated. It clarifies the broad concepts of non-formal education and defines policies and strategies for the sector.

The Non-Formal Education Policy of 2006 sets the following goals:

  • Expand Non-Formal Education (NFE) to provide the academic and practical knowledge, skills and information to different age and levels of learners;
  • Provide NFE equivalent to formal education to those who have dropped out and/or been deprived of education;
  • Set special provisions to increase access to education
  • Decentralise and localise the development and distribution of curricular and learning materials;
  • Develop Community Learning Centres (CLCs) to ensure equitable access to quality non-formal education for all;
  • Decentralise the implementation of monitoring, supervision and evaluation of NFE programmes;
  • Maintain networking coordination and partnership with involved agencies in NFE for resource generation and mobilisation;
  • Adopt inclusive education policy to ensure access, quality and co-existence;
  • Develop and share a common database among involved agencies in NFE programmes;
  • Include training, research, self-monitoring and innovation in NFE programmes to build the capacity of human resources involved in the NFE programmes;
  • Mobilise government and non-government organisations and private agencies to meet the targets of ‘Education for all’;
  • Align the financial management of NFE to the economic condition and governmental policy;
  • Assign local bodies to perform the regulatory role for the management of NFE;
  • Coordination and collaboration between Non-formal Education Centres (NFEC), government, NGOs, and international organisations to create cooperative environment among involved agencies in NFE programmes;
  • Develop a literacy campaign as the main policy strategy for the eradication of illiteracy and assign local agencies to be responsible for the campaign; and
  • Develop policies and strategies of involved agencies in NFE within the framework of the policies and strategies included in the Non-Formal Education Policy of 2006.
The major non-formal TVET providers in Nepal are:

  • Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT);
  • Private Institutions;
  • Other Governmental Agencies;
  • Technical Institutions of the Universities;
  • Community-based Secondary School (Annex Schools); and

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    3. Governance and financing


The Ministry of Education (MOE) is the main body in charge of education in Nepal. The Ministry is in charge of planning and management at all education levels. It comprises four divisions each including several sections: administration; higher education and educational management; planning and monitoring; and evaluation and inspection.

The Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT), established in 1989, is a national autonomous body involved in policy formulation, quality control, preparation of competency-based curricula, assessment, developing of skill standards, research and assessment of training needs.

CTEVT defines its goals as:

  • Develop policies for managing TVET sub-sector ensuring social inclusion, access, sustainability, integrity and relevancy of the TVET programmes;
  • Coordinate and facilitate the TVET sub-sectors and stakeholders;
  • Maintain quality of TVET programmes and services;
  • Prepare competent workforce for TVET sub-sector;
  • Promote entrepreneurship skills and basis of employment on the TVET graduates;
  • Broaden the access and equity in TVET activities;
  • Encourage participation of business and industry in TVET activities; and
  • Coordinate and manage counselling and placement services.
CTEVT runs TVET through its constituted and affiliated schools, which run TVET courses on health, tourism, engineering and agriculture trades at diploma or proficiency certificate level.

The Non-formal Education Centre, established in 1999 under the Ministry of Education (MOE), is responsible for literacy and non-formal education. The main mandate of the Non-Formal Education Centre is to upgrade and extend literacy, post literacy, and skill oriented activities by integrating different non-formal education programmes. The Centre assists in drawing up national policies and strategies that provide policy directives to programme implementing agencies working in the field of non-formal education throughout the country. The Centre has formulated both short-term and long-term policies pertaining to national literacy. It develops and disseminates curricula, training packages, textbooks and other related materials. The Centre also serves as a hub for networking among organisations involved in non-formal education programmes. As the concept of non-formal education expanded, the Centre incorporated activities and programmes related to continuing education, open learning and distance learning.


The cost of implementing TVET reforms contained in the School Sector Reform Plan 2009 – 2015 has been estimated at US$ 15.45 million. The amount covers a five year period which includes reforms such as curricular integration, piloting different schemes, trades and skills, and introduction of soft skills in about 100 public secondary schools. Separate funding arrangements are made to continue ongoing and planned programme activities under the CTEVT.

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4. TVET teachers and trainers

The Training Institute for Technical Instruction (TITI) in Kathmandu is being transformed into a centralised centre of excellence for the training and development of vocational education teachers.

TITI aims to provide basic and additional training through a modular course system. It also aims to provide training programmes that correspond to the local requirements and general framework of TVET teachers.

Normally TVET teachers hold a teaching diploma, which can be obtained on a part-time or full-time basis. For teaching staff whose practical experience in their respective field is limited professional practical training is provided in a variety of companies and organisations involved in industry, commerce, agriculture and health care.

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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

The TVET Policy of 2012 foresees the development of a revamped Nepal Vocational Qualifications system managed by the National Skills Testing Board. All modes and places of learning, formal or informal, in-school or on-the-job will be recognised in such a system and can be used for progression and transition.

The Skills for Development Programme (SDP), launched in July 2013, aims to develop the National Vocational Qualifications Framework (NVQF).

Quality assurance

Total Quality Management for TVET Institutions and programmes has been implemented. This programme seeks to enhance quality through staff development programmes, designing learner-centred programmes and improving planning in TVET institutions.

At higher education level, a Quality Assurance and Accreditation Council (QAAC) has been established and works in collaboration with universities and other tertiary institutions to improve the quality of higher education including tertiary TVET.

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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

The World Bank is currently funding a project named Enhanced Vocational Education and Training, which is running from 21 April 2011 until 30 October 2015 with a total budget of US$ 60.90 million. This project aims to expand the supply of skilled and employable labour force by: (1) increasing access to quality TVET programmes; and (2) strengthening the TVET system in Nepal. The project has four components as follows:

  • To strengthen TVET regulatory activities and capacity building: this component focuses on the regulatory environment and institutional resources available to the TVET sector; Disbursement under this component will be results-based and linked to specific milestones for each activity supported;
  • To strengthen technical education: this component focuses on strengthening technical education at the Technical School Leaving Certificate (TSLC) and Diploma levels provided by CTEVT constituent and affiliated institutions, community colleges and annex programmes. Both public and private institutions are eligible for support under this project. This component aims to make access to technical education more equitable, especially to the poor and disadvantaged groups in the lagging regions of Nepal, and to improve the quality and market relevance of the TSLC and Diploma programmes;
  • To support short-term vocational training and recognition of prior learning. This component supports short term vocational training and the certification of technical and vocational skills acquired through informal means through both public and private institutions; and
  • To monitor and evaluate this project: the responsibility for carrying out the Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) activities under the project is with the Secretariat. The Secretariat works to establish mechanisms for overall project reporting and to ensure that timely, sufficient, and reasonably complete and accurate information on project inputs, outputs and outcomes are collected, analysed and disseminated.
The project aims also to provide support to Ministry of Labour and Transport Management/Department of Labour and Transport Management (MOLT/DOLT) for developing a Labour Market Information System (LMIS).


There is a need for practical, result-oriented TVET programmes that can respond to emerging labour market needs. The School Sector Reform Plan (SSRP) 2009-2015 recognises the challenge of assessing needs and providing adequate TVET programming aligned with changing market demands. The government, therefore, works to revise and adjust curricula and modalities of educating and training students. Furthermore, SSRP points out the need for large financial investment to expand and consolidate TVET programmes.

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7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)







Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+1.96 %

For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
13.74 13.55
female male  
14.02 13.82
female male  
14.29 14.08
female male  
14.56 14.34
female male  
14.83 14.60
female male  
15.10 14.86
female male  

50.34 %

50.36 %

50.37 %

50.38 %

50.39 %

50.39 %

Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision

GDP per capita (currency: US$)













Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on World Bank Database

Employment (Million)

total female male


15.10 14.86
Labour Force
Labour Force Rate




Labour Force


4.81 (49.9%) 4.83 (50.1%)
Unemployment Rate






0.08 (45.5%) 0.10 (55.6%)

Youth Employment (Million)

total youth total female male
Population 29.96 3.46 (11.5%) 1.85 (53.5%) 1.61 (46.5%)
Labour Force Rate




Labour Force 9.64 2.82 (29.2%) 1.48 (52.6%) 1.34 (47.4%)
Unemployment Rate




Unemployed 0.18 0.08 (47.2%) 0.03 (38.1%) 0.05 (63.1%)
youth : total



Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on ILO: Key indicators of the labour market

Participation in TVET (% of upper secondary)









Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2008

-16.67 %

2 5
female male  
2 5
female male  
1 4
female male  
0 0
female male  
(ratio 28.6 %) (ratio 28.6 %) (ratio 20 %)

Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Data Centre-beta Country Profiles

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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions

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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations


Further reading


CLCs - Community Learning Centres

CTEVT - Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training

INGO - International Non-Governmental Organisation

LMIS - Labour Market Information System

M&E - Monitoring and Evaluation

MOE - Ministry of Education

MOLT/DOLT - Ministry of Labour and Transport Management/Department of Labour and Transport Management

NFE - Non-Formal Education

NFEC - Non-formal Education Centre

NGO - Non-governmental Organisation

NVQF - National Vocational Qualifications Framework

PPP - Public-Private Partnership

QAAC - Quality Assurance and Accreditation Council

SDP - Skills for Development Programme

SSRT - School Sector Reform Plan 2009-2015

TEVT - Technical Education and Vocational Training

TITI - Training Institute for Technical Instruction

TSLC - Technical School Leaving Certificate

Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
Publication Date: 2014-01-16
Validated by: Ram Hari Lamichhane;
Member Secretary;
Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training Nepal

page date 2017-05-05

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