World TVET Database - Country Profiles

Paraguay

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Paraguay
published: 2013-05-29

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

The TVET National Mission in Paraguay is to contribute to the strengthening of the sustainable development of the country, to promote job training, training for citizenship, to enhance production, information sharing and dissemination of technology.

TVET strategy

Paraguay is currently in a process of strengthening the National TVET System. The National Plan for the Improvement of Technical and Vocational Education in Paraguay 2011 – 2013, 2011 (Plan Nacional de Mejoramiento de la Educación Técnica y Profesional en el Paraguay 2011 – 2013, 2011) proposes to increase the number of institutions offering technical education in each geographical department and diversify vocational training programs according to the needs of the socio-economic development in order to have qualified professionals under a competition policy.

It also highlights the strategies of public-private dialogue aimed at generating jobs, reducing poverty and improving the living conditions.

Although there is currently no unified national policy formally to support the development of technical and vocational education, several laws and regulations underline the importance of preparing young people and adults for the world of work. A number of organisations within the government (i.e. Ministry of Education, Ministry of Justice and Work, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Industry and Commerce, etc.) offer some kind of technical or vocational program and have set up strategic plans and guidelines for the development of technical and vocational education.

TVET legislation

The legislative framework for the Paraguayan TVET system comprises the following laws:

  • The Constitution of the Republic of Paraguay (Constitución de la República del Paraguay, 1992).
  • The General Law of Education Nº 1264 of 1998 (Ley General de Educación) deals with formal and non-formal technical and vocational education on the national level.
  • Law No. 1253 of 1971 for the creation of the SNPP - National Service for Professional Promotion (Servicio Nacional de Promoción Profesional) that was later amended by Law No. 1265 of 1987.
  • Law 1652/00 for the creation of SINAFOCAL - the National System for Job Qualification and Training (Sistema Nacional de Formación y Capacitación Laboral), with Reglamentary Decree Nº 15.904/01.
  • Law N° 81/92 that establishes the functional and organisational structure of the Ministry of Agriculture and Farming.
  • Decree N° 10255/79 by which regulations are established for the operation of the Department of Agricultural and Forestry Education (Dirección de Enseñanza Agropecuaria y Forestal).
  • Ruling S.G.N. N° 41/94 by which the National Institute of Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud) was established at the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare.
  • Law N° 2385/2004 by which the National Institute of Health was recognised as a Higher Education Institution for the training of human resources and the production of research in the field of Health.
  • Law N° 3464/2008 by which the National Institute of Forestry (Instituto Nacional Forestal INFONA) was created.
Complementing these legal regulations are comprehensive frameworks such as the National Plan for the Improvement of Technical and Vocational Education in Paraguay 2011 – 2013, the Paraguay Development Plan for All 2010 -2020 (Plan de Desarrollo de Paraguay para Todos y Todas 2010-2020) and the 2024 National Education Plan.


Sources:

  • Republic of Paraguay (2011). National Plan for the Improvement of Technical and Vocational Education in Paraguay 2011 – 2013 (Plan Nacional de Mejoramiento de la Educación Técnica y Profesional en el Paraguay 2011 – 2013). Asuncion: Presidencia de la República de Paraguay.
  • Webpage of the International Labour Organisation – CINTERFOR.
  • Webpage of the Ministry of Education and Culture.


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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from Ministry of Education and Culture (2012).

Formal TVET system

Technical and Vocational Education programs are offered at different levels in a variety of forms. Formal professional training is offered at Secondary education level through the so-called “Bachilleratos Técnicos”. There are currently twenty four (24) fields to train technicians for the industrial, agricultural and the services sectors. Around 60.000 students are currently enrolled in 600 technical high schools across the country. Technical high schools curricula combine general education subjects with professional disciplines, with durations ranging from 3000 to 4500 hours. After three years of training, graduates are awarded the degree of “Bachiller Técnico”, which grants access to higher education and to the labour market.

As part of the secondary education level, the Law of Education established a professional training programme called “Formación Profesional Media” (Middle Professional Training), which is intended to provide a less academic path for students more interested in a professional qualification than pursuing a college degree in the short term. Students entering these programs must have completed nine years of Elementary School and will receive a certificate of professional qualification upon completion of the modules designed for each course.

Those who do not fulfil this requirement can also pursue professional training programmes after passing an entrance examination given by the Ministry of Education and Culture. Access to higher education is also possible through an Academic Competency Assessment Test (ACAT).

Post-secondary professional training programmes are also offered through the so-called “Técnicos Superiores”. There are currently around 10.000 students enrolled in 287 institutions (88% belonging to the private sector) offering these kinds of programmes. Upon completion of a two-to-three year training, an “Advanced Technician” degree is awarded.

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Non- formal TVET programmes are offered in a number of public and private institutions.

  • Vocational Training is offered at Vocational Training Centres to young people over 16 years old who have finished at least 6 years of formal schooling. Qualifications are provided in fields such as carpentry, construction, plumbing, computing, electromechanics, metalmechanics, automechanics, electronics, electricity and graphic arts. Upon completion of the established 1700 hours of training, students are awarded a certificate of training.
  • Initial Professional Training is a non-formal programme included in the basic bilingual education for people of 15 years of age and above, who have completed at least 3 years of formal schooling or its equivalent. Qualification is certified upon completion of the training in any of the following fields: Handicrafts, Dressmaking, Beauty, Language, Hospitality, Management, Computing, Construction.
  • Professional Training Level 1 is a non-formal programme for people over 15 years who have concluded at least 6 years of formal schooling or its equivalent. The programme is completed in 320 hours, leading to a certification in the following fields: Handicrafts, Dressmaking, Beauty, Language, Hospitality, Management, Computing, Construction.
  • Professional Training Level 2 is a non-formal programme for people over 17, who have concluded at least 9 years of formal schooling or its equivalent. The programme is completed in 600 hours, leading to a certification in one of the following fields: Handicrafts, Dressmaking, Beauty, Language, Hospitality, Management, Computing, Construction.
Another system of non-formal qualification is managed by the Ministry of Justice and Labour through the SNPP - The National Service for Professional Promotion (Servicio Nacional de Promoción Profesional de Paraguay) established by the Law No. 1253 of 1971. The SNPP is responsible for providing modular courses aimed for people active in different sectors of the economy throughout the national territory. It functions by means of its broad network comprising headquarters, regional, sub-regional collaborating centres and mobile units. It offers support and assistance to production sectors through training, development and career counselling for young people and adults.

Its main objectives are the organisation, promotion and development of vocational training and the qualification of workers of both sexes, mainly over 18 years old.

SNPP Structure and Centres

Scheme extracted from webpage of the SNPP.

SNPP offers 5 programmes: computer programme; distance training programme; apprenticeship programme for young people; business development programme; and instructors training programme. Courses of SNPP are offered in the following 3 sectors: agricultural; industrial; and trade and services.

In 2000 under the Law № 1652 and its decree № 15.904/01, the National System for Education and Training for Work (Sistema Nacional de Formación y Capacitación Laboral SINAFOCAL) was created. Acting under the authority of the Ministry of Justice and Labour, SINAFOCAL aims to fulfil the primary objective of the National Government by implementing programmes aiming at providing education and training to young people in search of first employment; to small entrepreneurs; and to small rural manufacturers. SINAFOCAL coordinates, controls and finances job training by contracting private institutions to act as the providers of courses. This approach combines state and private management of professional training. The beneficiaries of these courses are given the chance to acquire new knowledge, skills and capacities for free.

Courses are provided in the vicinity of the target groups, facilitating the improvement of their employability and entrepreneurship skills. REIFOCAL - Education and Training for Work Institutes Registry (Registro de Institutos de Formación y Capacitacion Laboral) is a part of SINAFOCAL responsible for verifying the legal existence of organisations with management capabilities for providing education and training in order to become part of the network of institutions providing the courses.

Other non-formal professional qualification programmes are offered at different levels by several organisations such as the Ministry of Agriculture and Farming, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the National Forestry Institute (Instituto Forestal Nacional INFONA), the Paraguayan Institute of Handicrafts (Instituto Paraguayo de Artesanía IPA), the Center for Business Support (Centro de Apoyo a las Empresas CEPAE), the National Electricity Administration (Administración Nacional de Electricidad ANDE), the Paraguayan Chamber of Construction (Cámara Paraguaya de la Construcción CAPACO), the Paraguayan Centre of Productivity and Quality (Centro Paraguayo de Productividad y Calidad CEPPROCAL).

Informal Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Paraguay is widespread, with many young people, mostly in urban areas, educated through informal education provided through their community, family, groups of friends, the media, the Internet, etc.

Sources:

  • Republic of Paraguay (2011). National Plan for the Improvement of Technical and Vocational Education in Paraguay 2011 – 2013 (Plan Nacional de Mejoramiento de la Educación Técnica y Profesional en el Paraguay 2011 – 2013). Asuncion: Presidencia de la República de Paraguay.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/2011. Paraguay. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
  • Webpage of the Ministry of Education and Culture.
  • Webpage of the National Service for Job Training.


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3. Governance and financing

Governance

TVET governance in Paraguay is distributed among state authorities. The main institutions responsible for it are:

The Ministry of Education and Culture (Ministerio de Educación y Cultura) through the Vice-ministry of Education for Educational Management (Viceministerio de Educación para la Gestión Educativa) and the Viceministry of Higher Education (Viceministerio de Educación Superior), performing both administrative and pedagogical functions and coordinating the following Directorates (Direcciones Generales):

  • Technical and Professional Education Directorate (Dirección General de Educación Técnica y Profesional directs, coordinates, manages and supervises the execution of TVET plans, study programmes and the professional qualifications of secondary school students in technical high schools.
  • Professional Training Department at the Lifelong Education Directorate directs, coordinates, manages and supervises professional qualification programmes for young people and adults within the framework of lifelong education.
  • Advanced Technician Institute Department at the Viceministry of Higher Education directs, coordinates, manages and supervises post-secondary professional qualification programsme.
The Ministry of Labour and Justice is responsible for non-formal programmes of TVET through the SNPP - The National Service for Professional Promotion (Servicio Nacional de Promoción Profesional de Paraguay) that is a technical body in charge of the Technical and Vocational Training that is involved in the national development process by providing immediate responses to the labour market in terms of training. This is complemented by another body under the Ministry of Labour and Justice: SINAFOCAL - National Service for Education and Training (Sistema Nacional de Formación y Capacitación Laboral).

The Ministry of Agriculture and Farming is co-responsible for formal and non-formal programmes of TVET in the agricultural sector. Through the Department of Agricultural Education (Dirección de Educación Agraria DEA), it provides technical support for the implementation of the Agricultural Technical High School (Bachillerato Técnico Agropecuario BTA). At the same time, some non-formal programmes are offered such as Agromechanics, Agricultural Mechanisation and Domestic Agriculture. Other departments of the Ministry of Agriculture and Farming such as the Department of Agricultural Extension offer additional training-for-work programs.

Financing

The General Budget of the Nation provides financing for both formal and non-formal TVET through the funds allocated to the Ministry of Education and Culture and to the Ministry of Labour and Justice respectively following the rules of the law N° 1535/99 of State Financial Administration http://www.hacienda.gov.py/web-hacienda/archivo.php.

The financing of the formal part of the TVET system is stipulated by Title 10 of the General Law of Education articles 145 to 153, which states that ‘the Ministry of Education and Culture will create special programmes and formalise agreements with companies to obtain their cooperation in educational, internship programmes for technical education, dual training system, cultural activities and scientific research’, creating therefore a basis for a broader public-private financing of the formal TVET system.

Institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Labour and Justice (for non-formal TVET) also receive their funding from the General Budget of the Nation following articles 5 and 6 of the aforementioned administrative law.

The Law 1265/87 of the creation of the National System of Professional Promotion (Sistema Nacional de Promoción Profesional SNPP) establishes on its article 29 that a compulsory monthly payment will be made by private employers, equivalent to 1% of the total salaries paid to their employees. At the same time, the following provisions are included in article 7 of the Law 1652/00 on the creation of SINAFOCAL - the National System for Education and Job Training (Servicio Nacional de Formación y Capacitación Laboral):

  • Revenue from provincial governments and municipalities to finance plans and agreements with the same purpose;
  • Input from agencies and private companies in payment for services;
  • Contributions from international cooperation;
  • Bequests and donations; and
  • The employer contribution of one percent on wages paid to employees of private companies.
Sources:

  • Republic of Paraguay (1998). The General Law of Education Nº 1264 of 1998 (Ley General de Educación). Asuncion: Republic of Paraguay.
  • Republic of Paraguay (1999). Law 1535/99 of State Financial Administration. Asuncion: Republic of Paraguay.
  • Republic of Paraguay (2000). Law 1652/00 for the creation of SINEFOCAL - the National System for Education and Job Training. Asuncion: Republic of Paraguay.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/2011. Paraguay. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
  • Webpage of the Ministry of Education and Culture.
  • Webpage of the National Service for Job Training.


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    4. TVET teachers and trainers

TVET teachers in Paraguay follow the General Teachers Statute (Estatuto del Docente) Law Nº 1.725 – 2001 http://www.mec.gov.py/cms/entradas/20176 that determines the requirements for entry and advancement within the teaching profession, the classification of teachers, transfers, disciplinary rules, the scale of their salaries and other issues.

Teacher training for General Education is done at the level of non-university higher education and the entry requirement is a high school diploma. The training of teachers is done in specific teacher training institutes and since 1995 a standardised national entrance test covering the areas of communication and mathematics, psychological tests, social studies and natural sciences has been introduced.

There is generally no specific teacher training programme for TVET teachers, except for some isolated experiments in the public and private sector that were specifically authorised for implementation (e.g. teacher training for computing or commerce schools). TVET teachers are usually university graduates that are required to take 1300 hours of pedagogical qualification, including courses on Philosophy of Education, Educational Psychology, Sociology of Education, General Didactics, Pedagogy, Educational Counselling, Educational Assessment, Information Technology.

Another group of teachers, especially in non-formal technical training, are technicians that are currently working in companies or self-employed, with strong practical experience and basic pedagogical training.

Sources:

  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/2011. Paraguay. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
  • Webpage of the International Labour Organisation – CINTERFOR.


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    5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

Although no National Qualification Framework is yet established, some plans in this direction are being developed with support from the European Union in the context of the project “Eurosocial”.

Quality assurance

Qualifications are not standardised, which is a major challenge for developing articulated training programmes and to guarantee comparable levels of professional competence among students. Formal TVET programmes are more structured, with unified national curricula based on job profiles collaboratively built with representatives from the Ministry of Education, private companies, sector unions and local universities. Non-formal programmes are quite diverse, both in topics and qualification levels, and the lack of a common referential framework is the source of frequent uncertainties in the private sector as to the level and quality of the training provided by a particular training centre providing specific certifications.

The National Plan for the Improvement of Technical and Vocational Education in Paraguay 2011 – 2013, points out a critical problem of the education system - “the absence of a common regulatory framework for technical training and a system of quality assurance” (p.15) and one of the main objectives is “to promote a system of academic and professional qualifications assessment through the professional colleges, together with the rest of TVET parties” (p.25).

The Regional Coordinating Commission for Technological Education of MERCOSUR achieved the harmonisation of six profiles of middle-level technical courses in the areas of electronics, industrial mechanics, auto mechanics, construction, agriculture, administration and management.

Sources:

  • Republic of Paraguay (2011). National Plan for the Improvement of Technical and Vocational Education in Paraguay 2011 – 2013 (Plan Nacional de Mejoramiento de la Educación Técnica y Profesional en el Paraguay 2011 – 2013). Asuncion: Presidencia de la República de Paraguay.
  • Webpage of the International Labour Organisation – CINTERFOR.


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    6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

An important project that is being worked on is the development of a Law for Technical and Vocational Education and Training. The law was recently drafted by a member of the Congress and has the main purpose of regulating, articulating and organising a National System of Technical and Vocational Education, where at the same time financial needs are secured through specific funding to support TVET. The draft is currently being revised by a technical team integrated by representatives from the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Agriculture and Farming, Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Ministry of Justice and Labour.

On 23 May 2011 the National Plan for Education 2024 was presented, taking as guiding principles the proposals of the Paraguayan pedagogue Ramon Indalecio Cardozo. This National Plan "Towards the centenary of the New School Ramon Indalecio Cardozo" is the new framework document for Paraguayan education policy and outlines the main actions to be developed in the sector in the coming years based on 3 axis:

  • Equity of access and permanence in the educational system;
  • Quality education; and
  • Participatory and efficient management of educational policy.
One example of this process is the construction of new facilities at the SNPP in Asuncion, covering 4,000 square meters of building. With this new building, the institution will have 4 blocks, besides its modern shops, auto mechanics, automobile painting and metalworking where the courses in the fields of refrigeration, electricity, electronics, industrial sewing courses, fashion design and management of industrial machines will be offered.

Challenges

Throughout its history Paraguay has had a large number of successful initiatives in TVET but these have been scattered and uncoordinated, planned by different institutions in the public and private sector to target certain population groups with very specific training needs. Nowadays there is one million and seven thousand young people aged from 15 to 29 years, of which only 32% have graduated from secondary education and only 5% have completed a tertiary level programme. Despite the education reform, this percentage is still rather low, particularly at the secondary and tertiary level, with problems of inequality in educational (UNESCO World Data on Education, 2010).

Paraguay faces the major challenge of restructuring and establishing an efficient National TVET system, and for that it has launched the National Plan for the Improvement of Technical and Vocational Education in Paraguay 2011 – 2013 (Plan Nacional de Mejoramiento de la Educación Técnica y Profesional en el Paraguay 2011 – 2013) with a clear plan of action and a strong political commitment to its implementation during the period 2011-2013.

Sources:

  • Republic of Paraguay (2011). National Plan for the Improvement of Technical and Vocational Education in Paraguay 2011 – 2013 (Plan Nacional de Mejoramiento de la Educación Técnica y Profesional en el Paraguay 2011 – 2013). Asuncion: Presidencia de la República de Paraguay.
  • Webpage of the International Labour Organisation – CINTERFOR.


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7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

5.90
6.01
6.12
6.23
6.34
6.46
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+1.89 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
2.92 2.98
female male  
2.97 3.04
female male  
3.03 3.09
female male  
3.08 3.15
female male  
3.14 3.20
female male  
3.20 3.26
female male  

49.44 %

49.46 %

49.49 %

49.5 %

49.53 %

49.55 %



Table compiled by Unesco-Unevoc based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision

GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2006

2007

2008

2009

2010


1 544

1 997

2 708

2 245

2 840


Table compiled by Unesco-Unevoc based on World Bank database

Employment (Million)


total female male
Population

6.46

3.20 3.26
.
Labour Force
43.9%
Labour Force Rate

43.9%

35.2%

52.5%

Labour Force

2.83

1.13 (39.7%) 1.71 (60.3%)
Unemployment Rate

5.6%

7.5%

4.3%

.
Unemployment
5.6%
Unemployed

0.16

0.08 (53.2%) 0.07 (46.8%)


Table compiled by Unesco-Unevoc based on ILO: Key indicators of the labor market (2008)


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions

References

  • Republic of Paraguay (1998). The General Law of Education Nº 1264 of 1998 (Ley General de Educación). Asuncion: Republic of Paraguay.
  • Republic of Paraguay (1999) Law 1535/99 of State Financial Administration. Asuncion: Republic of Paraguay.
  • Republic of Paraguay (2000). Law 1652/00 for the creation of SINEFOCAL - the National System for Education and Job Training. Asuncion: Republic of Paraguay.
  • Republic of Paraguay (2011). National Plan for the Improvement of Technical and Vocational Education in Paraguay 2011 – 2013 (Plan Nacional de Mejoramiento de la Educación Técnica y Profesional en el Paraguay 2011 – 2013). Asuncion: Presidencia de la República de Paraguay.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/2011. Paraguay. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
  • Webpage of the International Labour Organisation – CINTERFOR.
  • Webpage of the National Service for Job Training.
Abbreviations

  • ANDE - National Electricity Administration (Administración Nacional de Electricidad)
  • CAES - Service Training Centre (Centro de Adistramiento en Servicio)
  • CAPACO - Paraguaya Chamber of Construction (Chamber Cámara Paraguaya de la Construcción)
  • CEPAE - Business Support Center (Centro de Apoyo a las Empresas)
  • COPACO - Paraguayan Communications Company (Compañía Paraguaya de Telecomunicaciones)
  • IPA - Paraguayan Institute of Crafts (Instituto Paraguayo de Artesanía)
  • SINAFOCAL - National Service for Job Training (Servicio Nacional de Formación y Capacitación Laboral)
  • SNPP - National Service for Professional Promotion in Paraguay (Servicio Nacional de Promoción Profesional)
  • REIFOCAL - Education and Training Institutes Registry (Registro de Institutos de Formación y Capacitacion Laboral)
  • SENA - National Service for Training (Colombian) (Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje)
  • TVET - Technical and Vocational Education and Training




Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
Publication Date: 2013-05-29
Validated by: Mr Ramón Anibal Iriarte Casco;
Director de Bachillerato Técnico y Formación profesional ;
Ministry of Education and Culture



page date 2017-05-05

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