World TVET Database - Country Profiles

Russian Federation

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Russian Federation
published: 2012-05-10

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET strategy

With the modernisation of the Russian national economy and its priorities shifting towards a professionally qualified labour force, the TVET system is being restructured accordingly. The realisation of the crucial importance of TVET for the performance of the country has led to a number of Federal programmes aimed at reshaping the system. The main objectives of the currently implemented reforms are:

TVET legislation

All aspects of the State TVET system are regulated by the Federal and regional legislation, as well as decrees and orders issued by the Ministry of Education and Science. Cooperation between the Ministry of Education and Science and the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs is regulated by respective bi-lateral agreements.

The Federal Law on Education (last revised in 2009) regulates the structure, principles and operation of the Russian education system, with TVET as one of its components. Other regulatory acts in the system of education are: the Federal Target Programme on the Development of Education in Russia for 2011-2015; and the Concept of long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020 (section 4 on education development).

Key aspects of modernising education, e.g. adjusting TVET to the demands of the labour market, are addressed in the Federal Target Programme for the Development of Education 2011-2015. As a result of the modernisation effort, new competency-based TVET standards have been introduced in 2011.

Innovations in the field of practical training of students and projects related to vocational training and upskilling of teachers are regulated in the decrees adopted by the Ministry of Education.

According to the National report on Russia in the framework of the Torino process (ETF, 2011), a Concept Paper for the Development and Operation of a Career and Employment Advisory System for TVET Graduates has been in place since 2008. It provides the framework for the functioning of Higher and Secondary TVET graduates career and employment advisory centres.

Sources:

  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Russian Federation. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Russian Federation. Geneva: UNESCO- IBE.


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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from Ministry of Education and Science (2010). National Information Centre on Academic Recognition and Mobility – Russian Education System. Moscow: Ministry of Education and Science.

Formal TVET system

The education system of the Russian Federation consists of the following levels: general education, technical and vocational (initial and secondary) and professional (higher/university) education. Professional education includes programmes upon completion of which a diploma or a degree is awarded and the right to exercise a profession is granted. Vocational education is also concluded with a diploma.

Upon receiving an incomplete/core general secondary education certificate a student may proceed to the following tracks(graduation from the 9th grade is considered to be incomplete secondary education. A student may pursue higher secondary education or TVET programmes to achieve complete secondary education):

  • Complete general secondary education;
  • Initial vocational technical education; and
  • Secondary vocational technical education.
Initial vocational technical education is provided by vocational lyceums and vocational schools. Secondary TVET is provided by colleges and technicums. For students without a complete secondary general education, both ITVET and STVET programmes are run parallel to the high school component and hence all graduates have both a vocational qualification and a certificate of complete general secondary education.

The duration of ITVET and STVET programmes differs depending on the entry level of students.

Tertiary education is divided in two groups: non-university tertiary-level programmes of the advanced level of STVET and vocational bachelor programmes; and tertiary university level (higher professional education) programmes.

Non-university-level higher education is provided by colleges and sometimes universities that have colleges within their structure.

The duration of the programmes offered by STVET institutions varies depending on the previously achieved educational qualifications.

Higher education institutions can be universities (either Federal, National Research, state or municipal) and academies, all of which offer university programmes within various fields.

Medical sciences are taught in longer duration programmes depending on the specialisation chosen. Medical professions require additional practical training.

Sources:

  • Ministry of Education and Science (2010). National Information Centre on Academic Recognition and Mobility – Russian Education System. Moscow: Ministry of Education and Science.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Russian Federation. Geneva: UNESCO- IBE.


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3. Governance and financing

Governance

The management of the educational system is the responsibility of the state (federal and territorial) and municipal bodies. Regions vary in their social, cultural and economic aspects, therefore leading to differences in the structure and functions of territorial bodies. All education programmes implemented by regional governments take into account region-specific characteristics.

The Ministry of Education and Science (MES) is the only federal body responsible for implementing the state policy and legal regulations at all education levels including TVET and in all kinds of institutions.

Most education institutions are funded by the Federal MES or territorial ministries of education, some are funded by a few sector ministries.

For example, the financial support of agricultural institutions is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, whereas the Ministry of Healthcare and Social Development is in charge of medical education institutions.

Together with the MES, state regulatory bodies for education and municipal bodies are in charge of education establishments that they set up, and of general development of education.

Questions such as quality control in education institutions, supervision over legislative execution, licensing, accreditation and recognition of degrees lie within the authority of the Federal Service for Supervision in Education and Science that is subordinate to the MES.

The Federal Institute for Education Development has in its structure the Institute for the Development of Vocational Education.

Financing

State Higher Education institutions and TVET institutions are financed from the territorial and municipal budgets (depending on who their founders are). There are also private universities and colleges. The funding scheme is based on “per capita” financing, where funding is allocated in accordance with the number of students.

The National Priority Project on Education was meant to enhance the modernisation of TVET schools and universities by means of grants to support innovative projects shared by the national budget and by enterprises/or territorial budgets. Currently this Priority Project is transferred to the jurisdiction of the territories and the grants are to come from regional/territorial budgets and regional employers.

Sources:

  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Russian Federation. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • Ministry of Education and Science (2010). National Information Centre on Academic Recognition and Mobility – Russian Education System. Moscow: Ministry of Education and Science.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Russian Federation. Geneva: UNESCO- IBE.


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4. TVET teachers and trainers

There are two ways to receive teacher training in the Russian Federation: through non-university (TVET) colleges and through university higher education. Non-university institutions train pre-school teachers, whereas universities are for all other categories of teacher training.

All teachers, including TVET teachers, are obliged to attend at least one in-service training programme every five years. Ensuring the relevance of the training is the responsibility of education services and there is no external assessment taking place.

This approach is currently being revised. It is thought that in order for teaching staff to provide qualified and modern training, more frequent in-service training courses should be made compulsory.

It is planned to provide teachers with more incentives so that they will strive for more professional development. Certain financial incentive schemes are implemented to motivate the teachers.

Sources:

  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Russian Federation. Geneva: UNESCO- IBE.


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    5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

Upon completion of a 9-year incomplete/core general secondary education programme, students take a state examination, after which a certificate of incomplete core general secondary education is awarded. Depending on the results of the examination, a student may proceed by further pursuing general education or vocational education (both initial and secondary TVET, as is stipulated by the law).

If a student decides to continue with general education, a certificate of secondary complete general education is awarded upon completion of 11th grade. Results of the State examination taken at the end of 11th grade give access to both secondary TVET and university education. A student may send his/her examination results to more than one higher education institution.

Post-secondary vocational education

Completion of vocational programmes that consist of vocational and general education components provided by vocational lyceums/TVET schools and colleges/technicums grants students not only the right to exercise an occupation, but also the possibility to enter higher-education Institutions. In all cases a State examination has to be passed.

A non-university tertiary vocational education grants its participants a middle-level qualification. Middle-level professionals include technicians, work managers, clerks, accountants, pre-school teachers, senior nurses, midwives and laboratory technicians.

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

In 2011, the new Federal State Education Standards were approved in 567 specialisations and occupations for initial and secondary TVET. Employers were to take part in the development of those standards. The standards are competency-based.

Currently, the NQF is being finalised and would be compatible with the European Qualifications Framework.

Quality assurance

According to the Law on Education of the Russian Federation quality control is performed by governmental authorities specially assigned to this task and belonging to an executive branch. Main organ overseeing quality control and assurance in education is the Federal Service for Supervision in the Field of Education and Science.

Quality assurance and control mechanism in the field of education consists of 3 components:

  • State educational standard which is a set of nationally recognised requirements approved by the State that determine a mandatory minimum for the contents of education programme, maximum workload assigned to students, together with general course loads and requirements to be met by graduates;
  • Licensing that is “a procedure of assessment of the compliance of educational facilities, laboratory equipment, expertise of teaching staff, and teaching materials with State requirements and the issuing of a duly worded authorisation” (NIC ARM, 2010).
  • State accreditation that is “the formal recognition of the status of an education establishment by the state according to its type (secondary vocational or higher education establishment) and kind (college, institute, academy, university), confirmation of education programs level and quality of graduates’ preparation relative to the state educational standards” (NIC ARM, 2010)
Licensing of the Initial and Secondary TVET institutions is performed by local authorities in educational sector. The procedure consists of the formal assessment conducted by a visiting expert group in order to ensure that the institution meets the State and local requirements. Each new programme introduced by a TVET institution should also be assessed and licensed.

TVET institutions are a subject to accreditation that is carried out by federal ministries-founder of respective institutions in cooperation with local authorities. Accredited institutions have the right to issue state recognised diplomas.

State control over the quality of education takes the form of planned and unplanned revisions that are aimed to assess the compliance of the content of educational programmes and/or the quality of students’ preparation with the requirements of federal state educational standards.

In case of misconduct a warning is issued to an education institution stating what needs to be corrected. All the violations should be corrected in a period of up to 6 months.

Sources:

  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Russian Federation. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • Ministry of Education and Science (2010). National Information Centre on Academic Recognition and Mobility – Russian Education System. Moscow: Ministry of Education and Science.
  • Ministry of Education and Science (2011). Federal Law on Education in the Russian Federation (Федеральный закон об образовании в Российской Федерации). Moscow: Ministry of Education and Science.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Russian Federation. Geneva: UNESCO- IBE.


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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

In order to overcome these challenges, a number of projects are currently in place:

  • The National Priority Project on Education established a total of 300 innovative resource centres all over the Russian Federation to enable efficient implementation of initial and secondary TVET programmes. It is planned to develop an effective network of TVET institutions that can work as centres for socio-economic growth of the regions;
  • A new draft of the Federal Law on Education comprising provisions on the modernization process of TVET in Russia has recently been prepared and is at the moment being revised. Among other issues its main objectives concern: adjustment of the TVET system to the requirements of the labour market; increased decentralization of the TVET system governance and management; modernization of the vocational orientation and guidance system; development of human resources for TVET; establishment of an independent external assessment system for TTVET quality;
  • A modern network of leading higher educational institutions has been created together with a regional network of TVET institutions;
  • Employers’ associations’ involvement in independent assessment of TVET quality is being introduced;
  • Development and implementation of applied Bachelor programmes. Those programmes are oriented towards the needs of employers and are jointly implemented by higher and secondary vocational technical education institutions;
  • Development of strategic partnerships between private stakeholders and education institutions in the field of TVET to initiate and support the implementation of continuing education programmes and increase financial independence and transparency of educational institutions.
  • Establishment of endowment funds (example: Moscow school of management – Skolkovo); and
  • Implementation of initiatives to improve participation in TVET of migrants and people with disabilities.
Challenges

The main challenge facing the TVET system in the Russian Federation is the provision of a qualified labour force necessary for meeting the needs of a rapidly developing economy. Other challenges facing the system include: the inconsistency between applied modern technologies and those taught on TVET courses; a lack of teachers’ and trainers’ skills when it comes to innovations and developments in the subject taught; poor communication between TVET providers and labour-market players; insufficient involvement of the private sector and poor availability and organization of skills upgrading courses.

Sources:

  • ETF (2011). Torino Process: Russian Federation. Turin: European Training Foundation.


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7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2005

2010

143.84
142.96
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

-0.12 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
77.11 66.74
female male  
76.82 66.14
female male  

53.61 %

53.74 %



Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision

GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010


5 337

6 947

9 146

11 700

8 615

10 440


Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on World Bank database

Employment (Million)


total female male
Population

142.96

76.82 66.14
.
Labour Force
52.8%
Labour Force Rate

52.8%

48%

58.3%

Labour Force

75.44

36.87 (48.9%) 38.57 (51.1%)
Unemployment Rate

7.5%

6.9%

8%

.
Unemployment
7.5%
Unemployed

5.64

2.56 (45.4%) 3.07 (54.6%)


Youth Employment (Million)


total youth total female male
Population 142.96 20.75 (14.5%) 10.20 (49.2%) 10.55 (50.8%)
.
Labour Force Rate

43.5%

38.8%

48.1%

Labour Force 75.44 9.03 (12%) 3.96 (43.8%) 5.07 (56.2%)
Unemployment Rate

17.2%

17.5%

16.9%

.
Unemployed 5.64 1.55 (27.5%) 0.69 (44.6%) 0.86 (55.4%)
Unemployed
youth : total

27.5%

.

Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on ILO: Key indicators of the labour market


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions




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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

  • ETF (2011). TRP FINAL.pdf Torino Process: Russian Federation. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • Ministry of Education and Science (2010). National Information Centre on Academic Recognition and Mobility – Russian Education System. Moscow: Ministry of Education and Science.
  • Ministry of Education and Science (2011). Federal Law on Education in the Russian Federation (Федеральный закон об образовании в Российской Федерации). Moscow: Ministry of Education and Science.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Russian Federation. Geneva: UNESCO- IBE.
Further reading

Abbreviations

  • CTVET - Continuing Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • ECTS - European Credit Transfer System
  • ECVET - European Credit System for TVET
  • EQF - European Qualifications Framework
  • ITVET - Initial Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • NIC ARM - National Information Centre on Academic Recognition and Mobility
  • NQF - National Qualifications Framework
  • STVET - Secondary technical vocational education and training
  • TVET - Technical and Vocational Education and Training




Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
Publication Date: 2012-05-10
Validated by: Ms Olga Oleynikova;
Director;
National Observatory on Vocational Education (Centre for VET Studies) (CVETS)



page date 2017-05-05

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