World TVET Database - Country Profiles

As of April 2017, a number of updated Country TVET Profiles will be available in a new and more user friendly format with some new features (for example, statistical information).

Senegal

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Senegal
published: 2015-02-25

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

TVET in Senegal is known as la formation professionnelle et technique (FPT) and its mission is to train qualified workers according to the needs of the labour market and the economy to contribute to: (1) the modernisation of the primary sector; (2) the competitiveness of enterprises in the modern sector; (3) increase the capacity of small businesses; and (4) improvement of the informal sector.

TVET strategy

Following the national conference on TVET held in March 2001, the state of Senegal initiated reforms related to its TVET system. The new TVET strategy was adopted and institutional mechanisms were provided following the establishment of the department dedicated to TVET in July 2005. The reforms were introduced in the new Ten Year Programme on Education and Training (Programme décennal de l’éducation et de la formation) (PDEF 2000-2011) which describes the following objectives for technical and vocational education and training:

  • develop a qualified workforce in accordance with the needs of the labour market, developing workers, employees, technicians, supervisors and senior technical staff;
  • promote the development of knowledge, employability, and creativity among youth and prepare them to become the important actors in the workforce; and
  • increase the number of people with professional and technical qualifications.
The policy initiated “systematic steering partnerships” between key stakeholders and beneficiaries of TVET, and especially has involved the private sector in the preparation and implementation of strategic plans.

It also advocates the reorganisation of training programmes around the mission of initial training, continued training, integration of new graduates. This reorganisation will be developed according to a new structure of the TVET qualifications system consisting of three levels, namely Level 5 (CAP, BEP and equivalent), Level 4 (Bac, BT and equivalent) and Level 3 (BTS and equivalent).

The scope of the TVET system has also been expanded with the inclusion of non-formal vocational training, with the aim of setting up a standardised and tailored qualification process for such programmes.

In order to improve access and the quality of TVET, the reform has specified the introduction of new teaching methods, such as:

  • competence-based approaches in the development and implementation of curricula; and
  • alternance training teaching methods.
Finally the reform emphasises the need to strengthen training structures and link them to the needs of the labour market.

This new approach to TVET implies that market needs are the foundation and the key indicators to assess the relevance and consistency of the future development of the TVET system.

The Policy on the Development of Education and Training (Programme de Développement de l’Education et de la Formation) (2003) calls for strengthening TVET programmes and linking them to the needs of the labour market. The Policy makes the following recommendations:

  • TVET should be available at every level of the education system;
  • The High School for Technical and Vocational Education (l’Ecole Normale Supérieure d’Enseignement Technique et Professionnel), which is one of the key TVET provider at the tertiary level, should be restructured; and
  • the importance of accommodating non-formal education into TVET systems should be recognised, to ensure that all youth and adults have the chance to attain qualifications for work.
TVET legislation

  • Law n° 2004-37 (2004) has revised the Education Orientation Law (1971 and 1991) defines TVET as: vocational and technical courses taught at school and higher education institutions in order to acquire a certain level of theoretical knowledge and practical or technical and vocational skills; or on-the-job acquired knowledge by employees working in companies. The Law also specifically states that all youth under the age of 16 who are not enrolled in the general education system, should be orientated towards TVET programmes.
  • Law n° 2004-24 (2004) ratifies the 2003 Economic Community of West African States Protocol on Education and Training. The Protocol stresses the importance of education and TVET in improving socio-economic conditions, and has established the Economic Community of West African States Fund for Education and Training.
  • Decree n° 2002- 652 (2002) addresses the organisation and functioning of the Ten-Year Education and Training Plan (Programme décennal de l’Education et de la formation (PDEF), and has established the Management Committees for technical education and vocational training.
  • Decree n° 96-1136 (1996) transfers TVET competencies to the regional and rural communities.
  • The General State of Education and Training (Etats Généraux de l’Education et de la Formation) (EGEF) (1981) has established the National Commission for Education and Training Reform (Commission Nationale de Réforme de l’Education et de la Formation) to restructure, amongst others, the TVET system.
Sources:

  • Association for the Development of Education in Africa (2012). Triennale on Education and Training in Africa. Accessed: 14 July 2014.
  • Ministry of Education (2003). Policy on the Development of Education and Training. Dakar: Ministry of Education.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Senegal. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Senegal. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

After completing 6 years of primary and 4 years of post-primary education (in total 10 years of basic education), students proceed to secondary education which completes 13 years of school. Secondary education is organised into three streams; general, technical and vocational education. Additionally, students can also opt to attend courses to become a primary school teacher.

Formal TVET system

TVET programmes are offered at the secondary level and are taught at technical high schools (lycée technique) and in vocational education and training centres. TVET is organised as follows:

  • Secondary technical education: the programme lasts three years and prepares graduates for work or for TVET at the tertiary education level.
  • Secondary vocational education: the programme is divided into two cycles; the short cycle lasts two years, and the long cycle lasts three years. The programme prepares graduates for work or for tertiary vocational education.
TVET at the tertiary level

TVET is taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The main institutions responsible for higher education and technical and vocational training are the High School of Technical and Vocational Education (l’Ecole Normale Supérieure d’Enseignement Technique et Professionnel) and the Higher Polytechnic School (l’Ecole Supérieur Polytechnique) in Dakar.

Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Non-formal TVET programmes are offered by different types of stakeholders. These include professional organisations in the private and public sector, Chambers of Commerce, handicraft organisations, nongovernmental organisations and religious schools etc. Various ministries also provide apprenticeships and TVET programmes. For example, the Ministry of Commerce, the Informal Sector, Consumption, and local products (Ministère du Commerce, du Secteur Informel, de la Consommation, de la Promotion des produits locaux) organises training programmes in Senegal and abroad.

According to the Policy on the Development of Education and Training there is a significant informal TVET in Senegal. The Policy states that most youth and adults who do not have access to formal or non-formal education are trained on the job in factories or by local artisans.

Sources:

  • Association for the Development of Education in Africa (2012). Triennale on Education and Training in Africa. Accessed: 14 July 2014.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Senegal. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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3. Governance and financing

Governance

The Ministry of Vocational Education, Apprenticeship and Crafts (Ministère de la Formation Professionnelle, de l’Apprentissage et l’Artisanat (MFPAA), in collaboration with the Ministry of National Education (Ministère de l’Education Nationale (MEN), is responsible for administering TVET in Senegal. Specifically the Directorate for Vocational and Technical Training is responsible for implementing TVET-related government policies and for improving and developing TVET related structures on the national level.

The development of the TVET programme on national, regional and local levels is the responsibility of the Academy Inspector (Inspection d'académie (IA) (under the joint supervision of the MEN and MFPAA) and the Education and Training Inspection authorities (Inspection de l’Education et de la Formation (IEF) (under the supervision of the IA).

Financing

TVET is financed by the State, the private sector, and international cooperation. State funding comes from the MFPAA and MEN in collaboration with the Ministry of Economy and Finances (Ministère de l’Economie et des Finances (MEF). The French Development Agency (Agence Française de Développement), CIDA, JICA, the Luxembourg Agency for Development Cooperation, OIF, Cooperation Wallonie Brussels, ADB and the WB are examples of international organisations cooperating in the field of TVET.

Sources:

  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Senegal. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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    4. TVET teachers and trainers

The School for Technical and Vocational Education (Ecole Normale Supérieure d’Enseignement Technique-Professionnel (ENSEPT) of Dakar is responsible for training TVET teachers of post-primary and secondary levels of education. The school is part of Cheikh Anta Diop University in Dakar. Potential TVET teachers and trainers are required to have at least secondary education level qualifications and students are admitted following an entry examination. ENSEPT gives the following qualifications:

Qualification Duration Education level eligible to teach
Certificate in Teaching Post-Primary Technical Education (Certificat d’Aptitude à l’Enseignement Moyen Technique Pratique) 4 years Post-primary education
Certificate in Teaching Secondary Technical and Vocational Education (Certificat d’Aptitude à l’Enseignement Secondaire Technique et Professionnel) 6 years Secondary education
The School for Home and Social Economics and Training (L’École Normale de Formation en Économie Familiale et Sociale) (ENFEFS) of Dakar provides initial and continuing training in the field of home economics and social areas. It also conducts research on improving vocational training. The ENFEFS is a public institution attached to ministry responsible for vocational and technical training.

Future trainers must have acquired at least one post-primary level qualification and students are admitted to the programme on the basis of examinations and competition. The ENFEFS provides the following diplomas:

Qualification Duration Education level eligible to teach
Certificate in Monitoring Home and Social Economics (Certificat d’Aptitude aux fonctions de moniteur en Economie Familiale et Sociale) Middle School Certificate + competition + 2 years of training Post-primary education
Certificate in Teaching Home and Social Economics (Certificat d’Aptitude à l’Enseignement en Économie Familiale et Sociale) Middle School Certificate + competition + 4 years of training Post-primary education
The National Training Centre for Technical and Practical Teachers (Centre National de Formation des Maitres d’Enseignement Technique Pratique) (CNFMETP) of Kaffrine aims to train technical and vocational teachers in the field of rural crafts. Graduates from the CNFMETP generally go on to teach TVET to students and artisans, and manage artisanal development centres.

Qualification Duration Education level eligible to teach
Certificate in Practical Rural Education (Certificat d’Aptitude à l’Enseignement Pratique Rural) Middle school certificate or Certificate of vocational education (BEP)/ Technician certificate (BT) + competition + 2 years of training Post-primary education
Certificate of completion of master training programme (Attestation de fin de formation de maitre d’apprentissage) 9 months Informal (apprenticeship)
Sources:

  • School for Technical and Vocation Education (2014). Qualifications. Accessed: 14 July 2014.


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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Secondary technical education 3 years Technical Baccalaureate
Secondary vocational education 2 years (short cycle)/3 years (long cycle) Certificate of vocational education (BEP), Technician certificate (BT)
Post-secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Tertiary education 2-3 years Higher technician certificate (Brevet de technicien supérieur (BTS). University technology diploma (Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie (DUT)
Engineering 4-5 years Engineering Diploma (Diplôme d’Ingénieur Technologue) Design Engineering Diploma (Diplôme d’Ingénieur de Conception)
National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

Scheme extracted from Directorate of Vocational Education and Training (2012). Reform of the Senegalese Technical and Vocational Education and Training.

The Directorate of Examinations, Vocational Examinations and Cerfication (Direction des Examens, Concours professionnels et Certifications) (DECPC) under the Ministry of Vocational Education, Apprenticeship and Crafts (Ministère de la Formation Professionnelle, de l’Apprentissage et l’Artisanat (MFPAA) is responsible for assessing Senegalese qualifications. Qualification assessments are available regardless of the learning process whether; formal, non-formal, or informal. The organisation of the assessment process allows any learner to sit for assessment.

Quality assurance

The Academy Inspector (Inspection d'académie (IA) and the Education and Training Inspection (Inspection de l’Education et de la Formation (IEF) are responsible for the quality of TVET programmes, while DECPC is responsible for the quality of TVET examinations. Specialised inspectors and secondary education inspectors (IEMS) – under the direct supervision of the school inspectors (IA) – are responsible for monitoring the quality of teaching and learning, and the coordination and harmonisation of educational approaches.

The Directorate for Vocational and technical Training, under the supervision of the Ministry of Vocational Education, Apprenticeship and Crafts (Ministère de la Formation Professionnelle, de l’Apprentissage et l’Artisanat (MFPAA), are responsible for the supervision and monitoring of the administrative, educational and financial management and the quality of public and private vocational training structures which conduct initial and ongoing training for skill levels 5 (CAP / BEP), 4 (BT/BAC) and 3 (BTS).

Sources:

  • Association for the Development of Education in Africa (2012). Triennale on Education and Training in Africa. Accessed: 14 July 2014.
  • Directorate of Vocational Education and Training (2012). Reform of the Senegalese Technical and Vocational Education and Training. Accessed: 14 July 2014.
  • Ministry of Vocational Education, Apprenticeship and Crafts (2014). Directorate of Vocational Training. Accessed : 14 July 2014.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Senegal. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.


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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

The National Strategy for Economic and Social Development (2013-2017) states that only one in five people in Senegal work full time and one reason behind this fact is the weak link between the labour market, vocational training and self-employment. The strategy stresses the mismatch between vocational training and the need of the labour market which leads to a big informal sector. The strategy proposes the following reforms:

  • Integrate apprenticeship training in vocational and technical training programmes; and
  • Promote employment-oriented vocational training through the creation and decentralisation of vocational training programmes, the diversification of training programmes, and the construction, rehabilitation and equipment of high schools and vocational and technical training centres.
The Programme to Improve the Quality, Equity and the Transparency of the Education and Training Sector (Programme d’Amélioration de la Qualité, de l’Équité et de la Transparence du secteur de l’Éducation et de la Formation) (PAQUET) for the period 2013-2025 is an operational instrument of the General Sectoral Policy (signed on January 2013) based on:

  • Four principles: equity, quality, governance and partnership and mutual accountability;
  • Two priorities: developing one cycle (primary and post-primary) lasting 10 years and the adaptation of vocational training to labour market needs; and
  • Several different components compared to the PDEF 2000-2011, notably in emphasising: the right to 10 years basic education, focusing on the marginalised and the poor, focusing on labour market needs, strengthen decentralisation, enhance performance and generalise good practises.
Senegal has decided to adopt a new model of development through a strategy which emphasises the need to strengthen solidarity by 2035. This strategy is described in the Emerging Senegal Plan (Plan Sénégal Emergent) (PSE), which serves as a reference document for medium to long-term social and economic policies. The Strategy focuses on, amongst others, the creation of wealth and employment, strengthening governance, developing strategic sectors which have a significant impact on improving well-being, protection of vulnerable groups and equal access to social services.

The PSE is implemented according to the Priority Actions Plan (Plan d’action prioritaire, PAP), a five-year plan based on sectoral objectives and in accordance with the Accelerated Growth Strategy. The PAP is enacted through projects and programmes within the budgetary framework for 2014-2018, during which six priority projects concern the ministry responsible for vocational and technical training.

The Reform of the Senegalese Technical and Vocational Education and Training System (2010) aims to increase the number of enrolled youth and adults in TVET programmes, provide the economy with a skilled workforce, and promote employability and creativity in order to prepare young people for international work opportunities. The reform proposes the following changes:

  • Introduce a paradigm shift and move from ‘education’ to ‘training’ in order to integrate various formal, non-formal, and informal training systems;
  • Focus on skills and competences relevant to the work place;
  • Improve apprenticeship programmes and non-formal education;
  • Introduce a job-placement system and training programmes; and
  • Promote a dynamic partnership with the private sector through the creation of a National Consultative Commission for TVET, a Commission for Programs, and a Commission for Certification.
The national strategy on development and TVET is based on three main axes of intervention of the PAQUET (access, quality and governance) for which the following strategies have been developed as follows:

Access to TVET:

  • Adapt the supply of training to demand by: (1) using the results of planning studies (sectoral etc.) for the implementation of relevant and diverse actions; (2) including areas not covered in planning studies to develop a national development map linking training programmes and the needs of the economy; (3) developing partnerships with relevant sectors; and (4) promoting access for girls to industry related programmes through certain incentives.
  • Diversify the offer of TVET programmes by: (1) strengthening traditional approaches through improving the facilities of craft workshops and increasing the capacity of master trainers responsible for the implementation and monitoring of training; (2) increasing the use of training centres for the training of teachers in traditional language; (3) expanding the network of TVET related institutions to enable rural and urban populations to have access to multifunctional centres providing youth and adults with employability skills; and (4) developing mobile training centres in order to provide training and qualifications to populations in rural areas.
Quality of the TVET system:

  • Continue to revise the curricula by: (1) involving methodologists, curriculum developers and teacher trainers familiar with competency-based education (CBE) and revising the curricula for vocational teacher training (formal and apprenticeship) and technical education according to CBE models; and (2) focusing on the training of all actors involved on CBE.
  • Strengthen the qualifications of staff by: (1) improving the capacity of trainers and institutions in their own specialisations through training sessions, business internships etc.; and (2) improving teacher training facilities by providing resources necessary to accomplish their mission.
  • Upgrade training institutions by: (1) maintaining the quality of the infrastructure and equipment through systematic controls; (2) providing technical support to institutions in order to implement quality assurance mechanisms; (3) supporting institutions to develop and implement school plans; (4) focusing on capacity building initiatives; and (5) supporting the registration of private vocational training institutions.
  • Encouraging excellence in TVET institutions by organising Olympiads on youth entrepreneurship, developing invention awards etc.
Governance of the TVET system:

  • Strengthen coordination and management structures by: (1) improving the legislative framework of the TVET system in accordance with the new strategies; (2) implementing necessary measures to enforce legislative documents and regulations; (3) monitoring the programmes and diplomas issues by public and private schools; (4) promoting more inclusive and participatory planning in the TVET sector; (5) supporting the establishment of an information system concerning the labour market in collaboration with the Directory for Employment (Direction de l’emploi); and (6) supervision of actions by local governments in the context of increasing access to TVET programmes.
  • Provide better guidance concerning TVET programmes, the admission requirements and the various pathways etc.
  • Improve the management of human resources by: (1) the redeployment of surplus personal trainers in order to improve efficiency; (2) providing teachers and trainers on the basis of demand; and (3) regularly providing opportunities for personal and institutional capacity building.
  • Develop partnerships by: (1) strengthening the technical capacity and material and financial resources of consultative bodies such as the CNCFPT, CPP and CPC etc.; (2) developing successful partnerships between schools and businesses; and (3) establishing administrative boards (CA) and institutions (CE) to strengthen the autonomy of institutions.
National conference on education and training (2013/ 2014)

Three decades after The General State of Education and Training (Etats Généraux de l’Education et de la Formation) (EGEF), the government of Senegal hosted a one-year national conference on education and training (August 2013 to August 2014) that facilitated all those active in the field of education to agree on the one hand on the importance of the student, and on the other hand on the roles and responsibilities of the different actors. The new basis allows the education system to reflect Senegal’s cultural values while also being open to developments in science and technology. Amongst others, the foundation led to: (1) the establishment of a republican pact for stability, with the social dialogue committee (comité du dialogue social) (CDS) as its custodian; (2) the adoption of a teacher’s code of ethics; and (3) and a teacher’s oath.

Challenges

According to the Programme to Improve the Quality, Equity and the Transparency of the Education and Training Sector (Programme d’Amélioration de la Qualité, de l’Équité et de la Transparence du secteur de l’Éducation et de la Formation) (PAQUET) (2013-2025) TVET in Senegal faces the following challenges:

  • improving the links between TVET and the demands of the economy and potential areas of economic development;
  • developing a strong partnership between public and private enterprises and professional organisations;
  • increasing the number of students enrolled in TVET programmes (by 2025 orientate at least 30% of basic education leavers to TVET);
  • improving and integrating, in collaboration with chambers of trade and professional organisations, the traditional apprenticeship system into the TVET system (allow 300,000 young people present in the informal sector to validate their practical skills and get qualifications);
  • enhancing access and retention of girls in industrial sectors;
  • strengthening the qualification of trainers and implementing quality controls for technical and vocational training; and
  • supporting the integration of TVET graduates in the labour market.
Sources:

  • Directorate of Vocational Education and Training (2012). Reform of the Senegalese Technical and Vocational Education and Training. Accessed: 14 July 2014.
  • IMF (2013). Senegal: Poverty Reduction Strategy paper. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.
  • Republic of Senegal (2013). Programme to Improve Quality, Equity and Transparency. Dakar: Republic of Senegal.


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7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)


2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

11.27
11.58
11.91
12.24
12.59
12.95
Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+2.98 %


For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
5.74 5.53
female male  
5.91 5.68
female male  
6.07 5.83
female male  
6.25 5.99
female male  
6.42 6.16
female male  
6.61 6.34
female male  

50.95 %

50.98 %

51 %

51.03 %

51.04 %

51.03 %





GDP per capita (currency: US$)


2006

2007

2008

2009

2010


808

948

1

1

999




Participation in TVET (% of upper secondary)


2005

2008

5%

8%

Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2008

+20 %

5 5
female male  
6 9
female male  
(ratio 50 %) (ratio 40 %)





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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions


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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References

Abbreviations

  • BEP - Certificate of vocational education (Brevet d’études professionnelles)
  • BT - Technician certificate (Brevet Technicien)
  • BTS - Higher technician certificate (Brevet de technicien supérieur)
  • CAP - Certificate of professional skills (Certificat d’aptitude professionnelle)
  • CDS - Social dialogue committee (comité du dialogue social)
  • CNFMETP - National Training Centre for Technical and Practical Teachers (Centre National de Formation des Maitres d’Enseignement Technique Pratique)
  • DECPC - Directorate of Examinations, Vocational Examinations and Cerfication (Direction des Examens, Concours professionnels et Certifications)
  • DUT - University technology diploma (Diplôme Universitaire de Technologie)
  • EGEF - General State of Education and Training (Etats Généraux de l’Education et de la Formation)
  • ENFEFS - School for Home and Social Economics and Training (L’École Normale de Formation en Économie Familiale et Sociale)
  • ENSEPT - School for Technical and Vocation Education (Ecole Normale Supérieure d’Enseignement Technique-Professionnel)
  • FPT - Formation Professionnelle et Technique
  • IA - Academy Inspector (Inspection d'académie)
  • IEF - Education and Training Inspection (Inspection de l’Education et de la Formation)
  • MEF - Ministry of Economy and Finances (Ministère de l’Economie et des Finances)
  • MEN - Ministry of National Education (Ministère de l’Education Nationale)
  • MFPAA - Ministry of Vocational Education, Apprenticeship and Crafts (Ministère de la Formation Professionnelle, de l’Apprentissage et l’Artisanat)
  • PAQUET - Programme to Improve the Quality, Equity and the Transparency of the Education and Training Sector (Programme d’Amélioration de la Qualité, de l’Équité et de la Transparence du secteur de l’Éducation et de la Formation)
  • PDEF - Programme for the Decade (Programme décennal de l’éducation et la formation)




Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
Publication Date: 2015-02-25
Validated by: Commission nationale du Sénégal pour l'UNESCO



page date 2017-02-22

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