World TVET Database - Country Profiles
|TVET Country Profile|
| 1. TVET mission|
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
7. Statistical information
1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy
The Ministry of National Education (MoNE) recognises the increasing importance of TVET.
It aims to base TVET on:
- demands and requirements of the labour market;
- a participatory-approach;
- international employability of TVET graduates; and
- continuous development and quality-improvement.
- The Constitution of 1982 (Art. 10,24,42,62,130, 131) stipulates all basic responsibilities of the State with regard to education and training.
- The Basic Law of National Education No. 1739 of 1973 (amended by Law No. 2842 and Law No. 4306) specifies objectives, basic principles and general structure of education. It outlines requirements for education institutions at all levels; teaching staff; school infrastructure; material and equipment; as well as duties and responsibilities of relevant bodies.
- The Apprenticeship and Vocational Training Law No. 3308 of 1986 (amended by Vocational Education Law No. 4702) was adopted with the aim to improve TVET.
- Law No. 5544 of 2006 stipulates the creation of the Vocational Qualification Authority for the purpose of establishing a national qualifications framework for TVET based on national and international occupational standards.
- The Non-Formal Education Institutions Decree of 2006 regulates activities of non-formal education.
- Law No. 4702 of 2001 amends exiting laws and stipulates the creation of Vocational and Technical Education Zones that comprise of TVET upper secondary institutions. It grants access for graduates of TVET upper secondary schools to two-year tertiary level education.
- The Higher Education Law No. 2547 of 1981 outlines goals and principles of higher education. It defines principles related to the administration and management of higher education institutions. The Law reforms higher education and incorporates teacher training schools and institute of education into the system.
- Primary Education and Education Law, no 6287 dated March 3, 2012.
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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems
Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC.
Formal educational services at all educational levels are provided substantially (more than 90%) by public education institutions. Private education institutions also exist. Individuals, corporations or other types of institutions (such as associations, foundations) can open and run private schools at pre-primary, primary and secondary levels. Private education institutions are subject to the same regulations with public institutions in terms of educational arrangements and certification (curricula, teacher qualifications, length of school day/week/year, assessment, progression, diploma etc.). At higher education level, only 'foundations' can run private, not-for-profit, and institutions. Public funds can be provided for private higher education institutions within some limits upon meeting certain criteria. Although private higher education institutions are substantially autonomous in terms of their administration and management, they are subject to the same regulations regarding educational standards with public institutions. Administrative legislation and supervision related to formal and non-formal education (except for higher education) are under the responsibility of MoNE.
MoNE is responsible for preparing the curriculum, maintaining coordination between educational institutions, construction of school buildings etc. Educational activities in the provinces are organised by the Provincial Directorates of Education appointed by the Minister. Supervision of educational institutions is carried out at both central and regional (local or provincial) level. The supervision of primary education institutions is performed at provincial level by primary education inspectors, while inspectors delegated by the MoNE supervise secondary education institutions. Higher education institutions are autonomous for purposes of education and research. However, they have to submit annual reports to Higher Education Council (YÖK) which is responsible for the planning and coordination of higher education. Institutions are monitored at least once a year by Higher Education Supervisory Board acting on behalf of the YÖK.
The Turkish National Education System is determined by National Education Basic Act No. 1739, which consists of two main parts, namely “formal education” and “non-formal education”.
Formal TVET system
Upper Secondary (General & Vocational) Education
Upper secondary education includes all education institutions of a general or vocational and technical character with duration of at least four years following lower secondary education. The objectives of upper secondary education are to give students a common minimum overall knowledge, to familiarise them with problems of the individual and society and to seek solutions, to ensure that they gain the awareness that shall contribute to the socio-economic and cultural development of the country and to prepare them for both higher education and a profession or for life and employment, in line with their interests and aptitudes.
There are two types of upper secondary education: general and vocational–technical Secondary education schools last a minimum of 4 years including 9th- and 12th grades and cover the age range from 14 to 17. Some institutions have a 5–year duration, including a foreign language preparation grade. Both general education and vocational–technical education include institutions with predominant foreign language education, such as Anatolian High Schools, Anatolian Vocational High Schools etc. The basic difference of these institutions from others is the increased number of foreign language courses and instruction of some courses in natural sciences in foreign language. General and vocational–technical secondary education has institution diversity, with more than 30 types of institutions.
The TVET system in Turkey includes two main dimensions: theoretical (school training) and practical (in-company training). Vocational education policies and activities are mostly carried out by the MoNE within the framework of Law No. 3308, which came into force in 1986 and Law No. 4702 of 2001, which brought about changes to the system, establishing new and strong links of co-operation with industry and commerce. The vocational education system includes:
- Vocational and technical high schools providing training in 228 occupations and giving access or leading to the qualification of specialised worker and technician;
- Apprenticeship training, which is a combination of mainly practical training provided in enterprises and theoretical training provided in vocational education centres; and
- Non-formal education is provided primarily through vocational education centres. Non-formal education provides educational services in line with the general aims and basic principles of national education to citizens who have never entered or who are at a certain level of the formal education system or who have left formal education.
MoNE has been developing modular TVET curricula since 1993. In particular, through EU funded TVET project, competency based modular TVET curricula development studies have been intensified since 2002. In this context the programmes of grades 9-10-11-12 in 17 job families and 64 branches have been developed within the context of the Project (2002-2007) and approved by the Board of Education.
At the moment, based on the feedback and changing needs of the labour market, approximately 7000 module booklets covering 62 job families and 228 branches representing all sectors in Turkey are being utilised for TVET teaching:
Vocational and technical education institutions educate students for business and professional branches in line with the objectives of general secondary education and prepare them for higher education. The secondary education institutions offering vocational and technical training include compulsory courses in the 9th grade, an Information and Communication Technology course and an elective course of three hours. The pupils are allocated to job families in the 10th grade and occupational branch in the 11th grade and attend to these branches in the 12th grade and graduate.
School/Institution and Program Types
The branch courses in secondary education institutions offering vocational and technical education consist of courses developing competencies towards various professions. Furthermore, each branch consists of various sub-branches. Anatolian Technical High School and technical School are excluded from this generalisation. The weekly timetables and curriculums implemented in Anatolian technical high schools and technical high schools are similar with the general high schools as of the common general education courses and branch courses of natural sciences branch. The present branches in vocational and technical education institutions can be categorised as follows:
- Industrial and technical branches: Apparel, textile technologies, olive technology, and computer aided industrial modelling, decorative arts, automotive technologies, furniture and decoration, metal technology, machine technology, information technologies, apparel machinery maintenance and repair, electric technologies, electronic technologies, industrial casting, nourishment technology, construction technology, plastic arts and design, plastics technology, etc.
- Branches related to trade and tourism: office management and secretary, accounting and finance, insurance trade and risk management, computers, marketing, catering services, accommodation services, travel agency, travel, recreational services, tourism, journalism, public relations and promotion, radio, cinema and television, etc.
- Branches related to social services: Skin care and hairdressing, child development and education, organisation services, etc.
Open Vocational High School
As a result of feedback received from implementations to date, scientific and technological developments, face-to-face education and practical training; it became necessary to establish Open Vocational High School in order to implement vocational secondary education programs more effectively which already exist in Open High School programs.
Although the Open Vocational High School carries out the same system in terms of formal education program content, it is unique and different from the other formal education institutions in terms of structure and functioning. In 2006, along with all high schools Open Vocational High School was also extended to 4 years.
Common and elective courses taught in the Open Vocational High School are determined in parallel with the formal education by the Board of Education. Education is delivered through TV and radio and supported by printed materials. Vocational courses are taught face to face. Printed materials are sent to students’ addresses by mail and published as e-books on the internet as well. Graduates of the middle school enrolled to Open Vocational High School can graduate in a minimum of 4 years (8 semesters).
The Turkish higher education system consists of ‘universities’ and ‘higher technology institutes’ (ISCED 5A-B, 6). All higher education institutions are affiliated to universities/higher technology institutes. The only exception to this are some vocational higher schools run by foundations (ISCED 5B). Presently, there are eight vocational higher schools of this type. Universities/higher technology institutes consist of vocational schools which provide two year-education leading to an associate degree, faculties (science and literature, engineering, etc.) and vocationally oriented higher schools with four year-duration leading to bachelor’s degree, faculties (medicine and dentistry) with five-six year-duration leading to master’s degree, the institutes (graduate schools) awarding master’s/doctorate degree. Universities/higher technology institutes may be divided into two groups in administration and financing: public and private (foundation) universities. The students of foundation higher education institutions constitute only 8.3 per cent of all higher education students. The share of graduate students (master and doctorate) of foundation higher institutions is 5.7 %.
Non-formal and informal TVET systems
Non-formal educational services are provided by the Directorate General for Lifelong Learning through the following institutions;
- Public Education Centres (Total number : 980)
- Vocational Education Centres (Total number: 334)
- Tourism Education Centres (Total number : 9)
- Maturation Institutes (15)
- Open Lower Secondary School, Open Upper Secondary School, Open Vocational and Technical School
As the duration of compulsory education was prolonged to 12 years, the structure of the apprenticeship training has also changed. Apprenticeship training is a dual training system in which theoretical training is given in vocational training centres and practical training is in the workplace. Students must be lower secondary level graduates and enrolment to Open Vocational High School is compulsory. While they continue their upper secondary education in Open Vocational High School; they may attend the apprenticeship programmes in Vocational Education Centres (VECs). Apprenticeship training is provided for those who have not been able to continue their education after formal lower secondary education or who have been left out of formal education for various reasons.
Public Education Centres
Education activities, carried outside of formal education institutions, take place mainly in public training centres throughout the country. These centres offer:
- Literacy courses
- Vocational courses
- Socio-cultural courses and activities
For more information on the Turkish Qualifications Framework see section 5 below.
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3. Governance and financing
The MoNE is the main body in charge of education in Turkey. The Ministry supervises all formal and non-formal education, excluding higher education. It administers education at central and local levels (provinces /districts). Besides the central unit, MoNE organisational units are established in 81 provinces and over 800 districts. Each province has one provincial national education directorate and every district has one district national education directorate. These directorates are responsible for executing educational services in their provinces/districts.
The Ministry has been restructured by the decree law no. 652, dd.14 September 2011. With this law 4 different vocational education directorates within the ministry are merged to form a unique directorate.
Below are the tasks of General Directorate of Vocational and Technical Education:
- To condition and implement policies towards the management of the schools and institutions of vocational and technical education and the education of their students.
- To prepare or outsource the education and training programs, textbooks, educational tools and equipment of vocational and technical schools and submit them to the Board of Education.
- To develop, implement and coordinate the implementation of policies and strategies which will enhance vocational and technical education and strengthen education-employment relationship.
- To fulfil other tasks given by the minister.
Schools affiliated to the MoNE Directorate General for Vocational and Technical Education are:
- Anatolian Technical High Schools;
- Technical High Schools;
- Anatolian Vocational High Schools;
- Industrial Vocational High Schools and Multi-Programs High Schools;
- Agricultural Vocational High Schools;
- Anatolian Meteorological Vocational High School;
- Anatolian Cadastral Vocational High School;
- Commercial Vocational High Schools;
- Anatolian Commercial Vocational High Schools;
- Anatolian Hotel Management and Tourism Vocational High Schools;
- Anatolian Mass Communications Vocational Schools;
- Multi-Programs High Schools;
- Justice Vocational High School; and
- Health Vocational High Schools.
- Imam-Hatip Lower and Upper Secondary Schools;
- Anatolian Imam-Hatip Upper Secondary Schools; and
- Imam-Hatip Open Upper Secondary Schools.
The National Council for Education is the highest consultative and decision making-body of the MoNE. It consists of relevant stakeholders and was established to develop the national education system and improve its quality. The Council convenes every four years and delivers decisions on education which are implemented after being approved by the Government.
The Board of Education provides advice to the Minister on all education-related issues; develops visions; conducts research; and prepares educational plans, curricula and educational materials.
VEC composed of the representatives of Ministries, public institutions and agencies, employers and workers. The VEC takes decisions on the issues of implementation of vocational and technical education programmes at all formal, non-formal, apprenticeship education institutions. Council decisions are notified to the Ministry of National Education.
More specifically, its tasks include:
- to identify the educational needs of different sectors and fields on apprenticeship training and vocational education;
- to provide feedback on the fundamentals and duration of the vocational education programmes;
- to prepare the drafts of regulations about testing/assessment procedures, establishment and functioning of vocational education testing/assessment commissions at apprenticeship and enterprises;
- to prepare contract models for apprentice nominees, apprentices and students receiving vocational education at enterprises;
- when necessary to set up specialty commissions so as to examine the issues related to apprenticeship and vocational education;
- to examine the issues delivered by the Ministry about apprenticeship and vocational education and provide feedback;
- to determine the professionals and places which will be imported or exported to/from the implementation field in line with the law on vocational training in enterprises and apprentices; and
- to keep track on the effects on vocational education of changes in technological developments and business life.
The Provincial Employment and Vocational Education Boards are important mechanisms having the potential to produce “local solutions for local problems” by means of social dialogue method.
Provincial employment and vocational education boards have been created to mobilise local facilities and resources in the fight against unemployment by providing collaboration and peer-learning between different institutions and organisations. They consist of representatives of other public authorities, as well as workers, employers and trade organisations, industry chambers and other local organisations representatives. Their tasks are:
- to determine and monitor the needs of the local labour market;
- to provide vocational courses in the areas of labour force demand; and
- to prevent employment loss.
Both missions are extremely ambitious as they intend to introduce in the Turkish VET system outcome-related mechanisms that are considered everywhere as landmarks of modern governance. So far (2011) over 215 OS have been prepared in cooperation with social partners and sector representatives.
The Council of Higher Education which is the main planning, coordinating and policy-making body in higher education. Higher education institutions are autonomous in education and research but have to submit annual reports to the Council.
TVET is funded by allocations in the national budget:
|Years||MoNE Budget (TL)|
TVET Budget Allocated from the MoNE Budget:
|Total TVET (excluding Religious Vocational Education)||3.089.399.325 TL||3.307.287.900 TL||4.314.914.500 TL||5.562.813.504 TL|
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4. TVET teachers and trainers
Initial teacher training programmes for pre-primary, primary, lower and secondary education in Turkey are carried out by the universities and are 4 or 5 years long for pre-primary/primary and secondary teachers respectively.
The Faculty of Technical Education, the Faculty of Vocational Education and the Faculty of Trade and Tourism Education that used to train teachers for vocational and technical secondary education institutions were closed down and new colleges called Faculty of Technology, Faculty of Art and Design and Faculty of Tourism replaced them on November 13th 2009 following a decision of the Turkish Parliament due to the employability problems that the graduates of those schools have faced in recent years and the suggestions of the Higher Education Council of Turkey (HEC). These new faculties will train engineering students. Additionally, the graduates of these faculties can also become teachers at the technical or vocational high schools if they follow pedagogical courses.
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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks
National Qualifications Framework (NQF)
The law of Vocational Qualifications Authority (VQA ) was accepted by the Turkish Grand National Assembly in September 2006 and was published in the official gazette on 07 October 2006. The establishment of VQA will achieve a system that will enable mobility among academic and vocational fields appropriate for assessment at all levels, grading and certification based on the accepted occupational standards. VQA has two major responsibilities that are crucial to the strengthening of the relationships of the TVET system to employment:
- VQA is expected to develop occupational standards based on actual competencies required by the labour market. These OS will shape the development of training standards to be used by all training institutions in the country. They will provide TVET schools with much needed objectives in terms of competencies-based curricula. To the extent that social partners are involved in this task their commitment to the TVET system will increase and the relevance of TVET to employment will improve.
- VQA also has important responsibilities in the area of student assessment and certification. It will contribute to overcome a major weakness of the Turkish TVET system, namely the lack of standardised mechanisms to assess and control the quality and the relevance to employment of the learning process that takes place in training institutions.
European Qualifications Framework for TVET
Scheme extracted from Vocational Qualifications Authority (VQA) website
Turkey is developing an overarching Turkish Qualifications Framework that is going to be referenced to the EQF. The levels for the framework have already been discussed and technical work is on its way. The overarching framework is bringing together developments in adult learning, initial TVET, secondary education, teacher training and higher education to establish a framework for recognition of lifelong learning.
Three sub-systems that are also under development are being linked through the TQF:
The National Vocational Qualifications System is being implemented by the Vocational Qualifications Authority since 2007, and is developing a quality assured system of vocational qualifications based on national occupational standards which is driven by economic sectors. Sectorial awarding bodies (VocTest Centres) are established around the country. This system provides qualifications for continuing vocational education.
Turkey is also establishing a Higher Education Qualifications Framework in line with the Qualifications Framework of the European Higher Education Area. The Council for Higher Education is coordinating this work. The Ministry of National Education is responsible for initial TVET qualifications, secondary education and teacher qualifications.
MoNE is the body responsible for legal, policy and programme definition aspects of TVET in Turkey. It is responsible for approving the educational institutions that are to provide any of the types of TVET as mentioned above, excluding Higher Education Vocational Schools.
The institution in charge of quality assurance in TVET at national level is the Ministry, or more concretely, the General Directorate for Technical and Vocational Education (DG for TVET) and the Presidency of Guidance and Supervision of the Ministry.
In Turkey there are no legal acts discussing quality assurance as such. There are legal acts discussing Total Quality Management (TQM). Namely, there exist:
- Directive for Implementation of TQM, Communiques Journal no. 2506 from November 1999) of the Ministry.
- Directive for Awarding on Implementation of TQM of the Ministry, Communiques Journal no. 2568 January 2005.
- Amendment Directive for Awarding on Implementation of TQM of the Ministry, Communiques Journal no. 2590 November 2006.
- Amendment Directive for Awarding on Implementation of TQM of the Ministry, Communiques Journal no. 2619 April 2009
Provincial Presidency of Educational Supervisors carries out guidance, evaluation, supervision, research, investigation, analysis and on-job training services for all grades and types of formal and non-formal education institutions in the province besides the provincial and sub-provincial directorates of national education.
Presidency of Guidance and Supervision carries out similar services for the central ministerial staff including their administrative, financial and legal operations with an educational and counselling approach.
At tertiary level, monitoring of higher education institutions is carried out by the Higher Education Supervision Board. The Board is part of the Higher Education Council and is in charge of external evaluation of universities, affiliated units, academic staff and their activities. In 2005, the Regulation for Academic Assessment and Quality Improvement in Higher Education Institutions was adopted. It outlines requirements for academic and research evaluation, as well as of monitoring of administrative services at higher education institutions.
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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges
Current reforms and major projects
The MoNE is implementing a range of programmes which aim to improve the quality of TVET.
- Specialised TVET Centres for Employment (National) (2010-2015) (51 Million €) - The ‘Specialised TVET Centres for Employment’ project was signed in June 2010. It aims to improve employability of young people by enhancing their qualifications. The five-year project is run jointly by MoNE, the Ministry of Labour and Social Security, the Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey (TOBB), and TOBB University of Economics and Technology (TOBB ETU). The project will strengthen the technological infrastructure of 140 secondary technical and vocational schools in 81 provinces; provide in-service training for teachers at the schools; map demand for qualified workers in the 81 provinces; and provide on-the-job training to nearly 1 million trainees.
- Operation to Improve the Quality of TVET- 1&2 (European Union) (2011-2015) (33 Million €) - Project is designed for realising multi-directional activities under the title of Quality, Education and Communication in order to reach to an up-to-date, qualified, measurable, sustainable vocational and technical education which would meet the needs of business world and students. It also aims to carry vocational education in Turkey to a quality assurance system. Project is implemented in 21 pilot provinces and selected application schools. (Source: http://metek.meb.gov.tr/)
- Increasing Schooling Rate of Girls-1&2 (European Union) (2013-2015) (34, 5 Million €) - The aim of the project for Increasing Enrolment Rates Especially for Girls (ISEG) is to enhance investment in human capital by raising school enrolment rates, especially for girls, increasing the quality of education and improving the linkage between education and the labour market. Selected from 43 NUTS II provinces, ISEG will be implemented in 16 pilot provinces which were identified to have the lowest rates of enrolment, especially for girls. Outcomes of the given implementation will be disseminated in 43 provinces, particularly Hakkari and Iğdır. (Source: http://kizlarinegitimi.meb.gov.tr/en)
- Project of Improving Lifelong Learning 1&2 (European Union) (2011-2013) (29 Million €) - The overall objective of the project is to promote the development and implementation of coherent and comprehensive strategies for lifelong learning. It aims to establish an institutional framework and capacity within lifelong learning perspectives in line with EU practices so as to support individuals access to education for increasing employment opportunities and within a system designed to value every kind of learning. The project covers 43 pilot provinces. (Source : http://hayatboyu.meb.gov.tr)
- Movement of Enhancing Opportunities and Improving Technologies – FATIH (National) (2010-2013) - “Movement of Enhancing Opportunities and Improving Technology”, abbreviated as FATIH, is among the most significant educational investments of Turkey. With this project, 42.000 schools and 570.000 classes will be equipped with the latest information technologies and will be turned into computerised education classes (Smart Class). Turkey has initiated the FATIH Project with the aim to enable equal opportunities in education and improve technology in schools for the efficient usage of ICT tools in the learning-teaching processes In-service training for teachers is going to be held in order to provide effective usage of the ICT equipment that is installed in the classes in the learning- teaching process. The Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications has also supported the FATIH project, that has been carried out by the Ministry of Education (Source: http://fatihprojesi.meb.gov.tr)
- “Strengthening Vocational Qualifications Authority (VQA) and National Qualifications System (NQS) in Turkey Project” (UYEP) - UYEP activities were initiated in October 2010 with a view to offer consultancy for project management and policy making concerning the development of NQS and support VQA in its highly important task to ensure that vocational education provided is in line with the needs of the labour market, strengthen the link between education and employment and facilitate compliance with European Qualifications Framework. Project duration is 2010-2013 (March). The overall objective of the projects to ensure the provision of formal and non-formal vocational and technical education and training according to labour market needs, supporting life-long learning, strengthening the relation between education and employment, and facilitate harmonisation with European Qualifications Framework (EQF).
According to the European Training Foundation (2008), Turkey has made considerable progress in implementing reforms in education and training. Nevertheless, there are still a number of challenges that need to be addressed.
ETF (2008) identifies the need to:
- Increase the status and attractiveness of TVET by focusing on quality and facilitation of transition to work;
- Make potential links between schools and business more productive;
- Develop lifelong career guidance mechanisms to facilitate better career choices of students;
- Promote continuing vocational training within a lifelong learning strategy framework; and
- Decentralisation needs a thorough analysis and discussion on added value of the different levels of responsibility.
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7. Statistical information(*)
Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision
Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on World Bank Database of World Development Indicators and Global Development Finance
Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on ILO: Key indicators of the labour market
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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions
- Turkish Vocational Qualification Authority
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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations
- Akkök, F (2011). European Inventory on Validation of Informal and Non-formal Learning- Turkey. Brussels: European Commission.
- ETF (2008). Human Resource Development Country Analysis – Turkey. Turin: European Training Foundation.
- ETF (2011). Workshop on Implementation arrangements for the Turkish Qualifications’ framework (TQF) for Lifelong Learning (LLL). Accessed: 01 May 2013.
- EURYDICE (2010). Structures of Education and Training Systems in Europe – Turkey. Brussels: Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency.
- UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Turkey. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
- Webpage of the Turkish Statistical Institute.
- Webpage of the Vocational Qualification Authority.
- Webpage of the Directorate General for TVET under the Ministry of National Education.
- Employers’ Association of Metal Industries (2011). Plenary 1 _Aykut Engin_v 6 Oct.pdf Towards a Vocational Qualifications Framework in Turkey: Employers’ Perspective. Presentation by Dr. Aykut Engin on 6 October 2011 in Brussels, Belgium.
- EQF - European Qualification Framework
- ETF - European Training Foundation
- FATIH - Movement of Enhancing Opportunities and Improving Technologies
- HEC - Higher Education Council of Turkey
- MoNE - Turkish Ministry of National Education
- NQS - National Qualifications System
- TOBB ETU TOBB - University of Economics and Technology
- TOBB - Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey
- TQF - Turkish Qualification Framework
- TQM - Total Quality Management
- UYEP - Strengthening Vocational Qualifications Authority (VQA) and National Qualifications System *(NQS) in Turkey Project
- VECs - Vocational Education Centres
- VQA - Vocational Qualifications Authority
- YÖK - Higher Education Council
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