World TVET Database - Country Profiles

Tanzania, United Republic of

TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
Tanzania, United Republic of
published: 2016-11-15

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET mission

TVET is an integral part of the whole education system in the United Republic of Tanzania and aims to guide and promote the development of citizenship and an appreciation of the cultures, customs, and traditions of Tanzania. In particular, TVET programmes aim to enable and expand the acquisition of life skills needed to meet the changing needs of industry and the economy.


TVET strategy

The development of TVET is guided by a number of documents including:

(1) The Medium Term Strategic Plan 2012/13 – 2015/16 which outlines TVET related objectives including:

  • Improve access to TVET programmes by increasing the number of adequate places in higher, technical, and vocational training institutions;
  • Ensure that the TVET curricula is relevant to the needs and interests of the country;
  • Develop new TVET curricula with focus on skills for self-employment;
  • Promote an environment for investment in science, technology, technical and vocational education, and higher education; and
  • Develop clear policies and guidelines regarding the TVET structure.
(2) The National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty II 2010-2015 addresses a number of issues related to the national education system, and particularly issues related to the quality of TVET, higher education, and adult, non-formal and continuing education. Specifically the Strategy sets out a number of TVET related objectives, including the need to:

  • Increase TVET capacity to include secondary school leavers;
  • Equip young people with the necessary skills to enhance their employability and mobility;
  • Improve apprenticeship schemes and mentoring systems organized in partnership with the private sector;
  • Expand and improve TVET infrastructure in order to expand enrolment – especially for girls;
  • Review and update the curriculain order to make TVET more relevant to the needs of the labour market;
  • Improve the quality of teaching and learning environments;
  • Strengthen quality assurance mechanisms; and
  • Promote the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning.

TVET legislation

  • The National Council for Technical Education Act (1997) has established the National Council for Technical Education (NACTE) which covers technical education at tertiary non-university institutions.
  • The Vocational Education and Training Act (1994) aims to improve TVET provision and management. The Act has established the Vocational Education and Training Authority (VETA) which is supervised by the Vocational Education and Training Board.
  • The Education Act No. 25(1987) forms the legal basis for education in Tanzania and defines the roles of national and local education bodies.

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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. United Republic of Tanzania. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

Upon completion of 7 years of compulsory primary education, students proceed to a secondary education that completes 13 years of education. General secondary education is divided into two cycles; a first cycle named Ordinary level lasting 4 years, and a second cycle named Advanced Level lasting 2 years.


Formal TVET system

offered through two distinct sub-systems, namely vocational education and training (VET) and technical education and training (TET). VET centres offer programmes in, for example, masonry and bricklaying, carpentry and joinery, welding and fabrication, electrical installation, secretarial duties, air fare and ticketing, tour guiding, and others of similar nature.

TVET programmes are offered at the secondary education level. Specifically at the Ordinary Level students can opt for two year programmes in vocational and crafts training offered at district and regional vocational and technical training institutes. Students who take vocational and crafts training will not be able to proceed to the next level of education and will normally enter the labour market. At the Advanced Level, students can opt for three year technician training courses.

TVET at the tertiary education level is offered in universities, university colleges, and tertiary-based institutions. Students can take a three year professional training courses.


Non-formal and informal TVET systems

Non formal TVET programmes are offered through different means, including:

  • Lifelong learning education programmes; and
  • Adult education programmes such as vocational training by distance learning, development colleges, and university departments and institutes.
For example, the Dar Es Salaam Institute of Technology (DIT) and India Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC) has established the India-Tanzania Centre for Excellence in ICT, promoting ICT by coordinating and running modular short-term proficiency courses.

Currently there is no information on informal TVET systems.


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3. Governance and financing

Governance

At the national level, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training is responsible for TVET. Particularly, the Technical and Vocational Education Training Division – under the Ministry – is responsible for developing TVET related guidelines and standards, and conducting research on the provision of TVET programmes.

In Tanzania TVET is divided into vocational education and training (VET) and technical education and training (TET).

VET centres are under the administration of the Vocational Education and Training Authority (VETA). VETA’s objectives include coordinating, regulating, financing, promoting and providing vocational education and training in Tanzania. Currently VETA is responsible for VET programmes in training centres, including Regional Vocational Training and Services, Vocational Training Centres, Vocational Teachers Training College and District Vocational Training Centre.

TET centres are under the administration of the National Council for Technical Education (NACTE). NACTE is in charge of delivering technical education at all tertiary non-university institutions. The Council provides courses for technician, semi-professional and professional levels leading to the award of certificates, diplomas, degrees and related qualifications. NACTE is also responsible for:

  • Coordinating technical education and training;
  • Registration and accreditation of public and private technical training institutions; and
  • Establishing a central database for technical education and training and a national qualifications framework for technical education.

Financing

VET is mainly funded by the VET Fund, administered by the VET board. The fund is composed of:

  • All assets previously owned by VETA’s predecessor, the National Vocational Training Department;
  • Sums paid as Skills and Development Levy (SDL);
  • Sums paid by the Government;
  • Grants and donations from external sources; and
  • Internally generated income through training fees and training material recovery.
According to VETA, SDL makes up for the largest share of the VET Fund (81%). SDL is payable by employers with four or more employees as a monthly fee at 6% of the total employee payroll. The Tanzanian Revenue Authority collects the levy and gives a third of the money collected to VETA. The other two thirds go to the Government.

TET is financed through cost sharing between providers and clients (students, parents, communities and private institutions). TET providers mainly rely on internally generated funds through consultancy, production, maintenance and international student exchange programmes.


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4. TVET teachers and trainers

The Morogoro Vocational Instructors Training College (MVTTC) – under the administration of the Vocational Education and Training Authority (VETA) – is responsible for training VET teachers and trainers. MVTTC offers two programmes; the Vocational Teachers Certificate Course (VTCC) and the Diploma in Vocational Education and Training (DVoET).

(1) VTCC aims to develop TVET teachers’ pedagogical and management skills and help them develop relevant competencies.The minimum entrance requirements for the VTCC are as follows:

  • Certificate of Secondary Education Examinations (CSEE) with passes in four subjects;
  • A minimum of Trade Test Grade One or Competency-based Education and Training (CBET) Level Three or Full technician Certificate (FTC);
  • At least two years teaching experience in the area of occupation and any vocational training centre;
  • Have a reliable sponsor or be able to pay tuition fees and other required costs.
(2) DVoET aims to enhance existing pedagogical and managerial skills of TVET teachers. The minimum entrance requirements for the DVoET are as follows:

  • Certificate in Vocational Teachers Training from a recognized institution/college;
  • Certificate of Secondary Education Examinations (CSEE) with passes in four subjects;
  • At least two years teaching experience in the area of occupation and any vocational training centre;
  • Have a reliable sponsor or be able to pay tuition fees and other required costs.

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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

Secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Vocational and crafts training (ordinary Level) 2 years Competency Certificate for Trades (CST)
Technician training (Advanced Level) 3 years Certificate of Secondary Education Examinations (CSEE)
Post-secondary vocational education

Programme Duration Qualification
Technical Education and Training (TET) varies Certificate, Deiploma, Bachelor's Degree, Master's Degree and Doctorate degree as appropriate
National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

The Vocational Training and Education Authority (VETA), in collaboration with the National Council for Technical Education (NACTE), has established a TVET qualification framework composed of ten levels. VETA is in charge of managing levels 1-3 (National Vocational Awards), while NACTE coordinates levels 4-10 (National Technical Awards). The competencies required for obtaining the National Vocational Awards are as follows:

Level 1 Competencies to carry out routine and predictable occupational duties and tasks under supervision.
Level 2 Competences to carry out a significant range of occupational duties and tasks or specialized occupational duties and tasks, some of which are complete or non-routine. Individual responsibility may be required and collaboration with others, working in groups, or teams is normally required.
Level 3 Competencies to carry out a broad range of occupational duties and tasks or specialized occupational duties and tasks, mainly complex and non-routine in a wide variety of contexts. Considerable responsibility and autonomy are generally required, guidance and supervision of others are mostly required.
Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC and extracted from the webpage of the Vocational Education and Training Authority.

The competencies required for the granting of the various NTA qualifications are as follows:

Level Qualification Description
Level 4 Basic Technician Apply skills and knowledge at routine level.
Level 5 Technician Certificate Apply skills and knowledge in a range of activities, some of which are non-routine and be able to assume operational responsibilities.
Level 6 Ordinary Diploma Apply skills and knowledge in a broad range of work activities, most of which are non-routine.
Level 7 Higher Diploma Apply knowledge, skills and understanding in a broad range of complex technical activities, a high degree of personal responsibility and some responsibility for work of others.
Level 8 Bachelor’s Degree Apply knowledge, skills and understanding in a wide and unpredictable variety of contexts with substantial personal responsibility, responsibility for the work of others, and responsibility for the allocation of resources, policy, planning, execution, and evaluation.
Level 9 Master’s Degree Display mastery of a complex and specialized area of knowledge and skills, employing knowledge and understanding to conduct research or advanced technical or professional activity, able to work autonomously and in complex and unpredictable situations.
Level 10 Doctor of Philosophy Apply knowledge and understanding and do advanced research resulting into significant and original contributions to a specialized field, demonstrate a command of methodological issues and engaging in critical dialogue with peers, able to work autonomously and in complex and unpredictable situations.
Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC and extracted from the webpage of the National Council for Technical Education.


Quality assurance

The Vocational Education and Training Authority (VETA) and the National Council for Technical Education (NACTE) are responsible for registering public and private institutions and accrediting their programmes. Both bodies contribute to analysing the labour market and subsequently developing the TVET curricula.

In VET, the Trade Advisory Committees ensure that vocational education and training programmes meet the needs of the labour market, assess training needs, determine training standards and related specifications, and coordinate related trade training activities.

In TET, NACTE, through the Subject Boards and Standards Setting Committees, is responsible for developing standards of training programmes based on occupational standards.


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Current reforms and major projects

The Tanzania Development Vision 2025 envisages the development of high quality education at all levels, with an emphasis on transforming the education system by enhancing scientific and technological programmes with the aim of increasing productivity.

The Education Sector Development Programme (2008 – 2017) outlines key operational targets. The following targets address TVET in particular:

  • To improve provision and equity of TVET by designing demand-driven TVET programmes, developing facilities, providing adequate finances, and introducing a student loan system.
  • To provide conducive teaching and learning environments by enhancing the quality of TVET teachers and the use of ICT application in TVET institutions, strengthening the quality assurance system, and reviewing the TVET curriculum in cooperation with key stakeholders.
  • To improve micro and macro management and governance of TVET by developing a three year rolling plan for the TVET education sector, enhancing planning and coordination, and promoting and funding consultative dialogue.

Challenges

According to the Education Sector Analysis (RESEN) (2012), TVET is key to Tanzania’s development. In order to enhance TVET programme, key actions are identified to address the current challenges facing TVET, including:

  • Strengthen TVET’s coordinating mechanisms as regulatory and quality assurance bodies still face difficulties in adjusting training courses to the demands of the labour market and target populations;
  • Coordinate and harmonize the TVET programmes offered by the various providers and ensure a continuation between the vocational and technical curricula;
  • Balance financing between technical non-higher education funding (57% of all TVET resources) and vocational training (37% of TVET resources); and
  • Define a funding formula to institutionalize the allocation of resources amongst technical institutions to limit the variations in the costs of courses offered by institutions.

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7. Statistical information(*)


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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres


TVET Institutions


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9. References, bibliography, abbreviations

References




page date 2014-12-19

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