World TVET Database - Country Profiles


TVET Country Profile
1. TVET mission
2. System
3. Governance and financing
4. TVET teachers and trainers
5. Qualifications
6. Projects
7. Statistical information
8. Links
9. References
published: 2013-09-18

1. TVET mission, legislation and national policy or strategy

TVET strategy

The Yemeni government recognises the uneven development between general and higher education and TVET. The rapid expansion of public and private higher education has caused a shortage in skilled workers on the labour market. As a response to labour market demands, the government has redirected its attention to TVET. Since the National Conference for Technical Education and Vocational Training held in 1999, TVET has been developed and is now covering the whole county; in the 20 governorates including Sana'a, the Capital city, in accordance to:

  • the second five-Year Plan for Social and Economic Development (2001-2005); and
  • the National Strategy for Poverty Reduction (2003-2005).
The Strategy outlines a three-phase TVET development plan:

  • Phase 1: 2005 – 2008 re-orienting and strengthening of the TVET system and completion of the new 35 new institutes, implementation of the demand-driven approach;
  • Phase 2: 2009- 2012 expansion and developing linkages of the TVET institutions with the labour market in different sectors and catchment areas; and
  • Phase 3: 2013-2014 review and audit of the TVET system and consolidation of its assets.
TVET legislation

The General Law of Education No. 45 of 1992 stipulates that education is a basic human right and is to be provided by the State to everyone free of charge. The State acts to realise social equality and equal opportunity in education taking into consideration social and economic difficulties which might prevent parents from sending their children to school.

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2. TVET formal, non-formal and informal systems

Scheme compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC from UNESCO-IBE (2010). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Yemen. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.

Primary education (basic education) is divided into two cycles – primary cycle (grade 1-6) and preparatory cycle (grade 7-9). The primary level lasts nine years, starts at the age of six and is free of charge.

Secondary education: following primary education, students can choose among three alternatives:

  • three-year general secondary programme;
  • three-year vocational programme; or
  • two-year vocational programme.
Formal TVET system

The three-year and two-year TVET programmes at the secondary level offer training in the fields of industry, engineering, commerce, business, agriculture and crafts.

The three-year vocational secondary programme gives access to post-secondary technical programme at a Community College which lasts two or three years.

The post-secondary technical programmes offer training in different fields:

  • the fields of three-year programme are: Information Technology, industry, commerce , business , administration, health, agriculture and design; and
  • the fields of two-year programme are: industry, engineering, agriculture, commerce , business, maritime, and hotel & tourism.
Non-formal and informal TVET systems

The division between formal and non-formal education is not well-defined. Initial training is considered formal education, while lifelong/continuous training is regarded as ‘parallel education’. The division is also made on the basis of the training provider; thus trainings provided by a public entity is considered formal education, while any other form of TVET provision falls under the category of ‘parallel training’.

Lifelong learning/ in-service training is provided as short-term courses that last six months and aim to enhance existing skills and give new qualifications to workers.

Dual training is considered a form of non-formal TVET. This consists of theoretical training provided by a TVET institution and practical training conducted at the workplace. Dual training is frequently linked to international TVET programmes.

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3. Governance and financing


The Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training (MTEVT) is in charge of post-basic and post-secondary TVET.

MTEVT was established in 2011 through the consolidation of training activities previously undertaken by the General Authority for vocational and technical training, the Ministry of Education (MOE), and other public providers.

The MTEVT comprises six general administrative departments and four thematic sectors. The four sectors under the direct supervision of the minister include the following principal functions relating to TVET design and delivery:

  • Standards and quality covering (4 general directions);
  • Curricula and continuous education covering (3 general directions);
  • Labour market and private sector relationships (4 general directions);
  • Planning and Projects covering. (4 general directions);
  • Education & training Girls covering (3 general directions); and
  • MTEVT Regional offices are responsible for administrative of activities undertaken by the respective training centres and institutions.
The roles and responsibilities of MTEVT are as follows:

  • conducting TVET research aimed at modernising TVET policies;
  • designing systems and drawing up legislation for TVET;
  • assisting in the development of programmes aimed at fighting poverty and increasing employment numbers;
  • applying TVET standards set based on Total Quality Management and setting up an advanced system and mechanisms for comprehensive evaluation;
  • expanding and improving the quality of TVET, and developing programmes to train women and people with special needs;
  • preparing teaching plans and curricula for TVET in cooperation with the public and private sector;
  • developing and implementing training and continuous learning programmes for technical and administrative staff;
  • developing job classifications and standards for TVET;
  • setting up standards for the establishment of TVET institutions;
  • developing an examination system, and supervising its implementation;
  • awarding TVET certificates according to nationally accredited standards and levels;
  • developing TVET policies and plans, and raising awareness about TVET;
  • cooperating with national and local councils and curriculum committees;
  • encouraging private sector participation in establishing, administering, financing and evaluating TVET;
  • encouraging investment in TVET and enhancing the Ministry’s relation with the Vocational Training Fund and the private sector;
  • collaborating with relevant stakeholders to develop human resources needed in the education system;
  • running library systems in the Ministry and its establishments;
  • implementing modern technologies in TVET; and
  • fostering national and international cooperation in TVET.
The Council for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, Established in 2009, is a semi-governmental body under the Ministry for Higher Education and Scientific Research (MHESR). It is in charge of ensuring quality in private and public higher education. The Council aims to assist higher education institutions in establishing quality assurance systems and holding them accountable through accreditation.


The main source of funding for TVET are negotiated annual budgetary allocations. The Technical Education and Vocational Training Strategic Development Plan recognises that budgetary allocations can only satisfy the immediate needs of the TVET system and are not a reliable source of funding. This results in weaknesses of TVET output and limited utilisation of existing TVET capacities.

The Vocational and Technical Training Skill Development Fund (VTTSDF) forms another part of the financing system for TVET. The Fund is based on employer contributions and aims to enhance the funding base for TVET institutions. The Technical Education and Vocational Training Strategic Development Plan acknowledges the shortcomings of the Fund which include employers’ unpaid contribution fees and failings in contracting training programmes. These shortcomings are attributed to a weak legislative framework under which the Fund was established. The Plan envisages the development of a sustainable financing system for TVET.

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4. TVET teachers and trainers

In general, the minimum qualification to become a teacher is a two-year post-secondary diploma from a Teacher Training Institute. University graduates are the preferred candidates for teaching in grades 7 to 12.

There is a shortage of TVET teachers and trainers that leads to a negative impact on the running of TVET institutions. The available TVET trainers are mostly poorly qualified – they lack pedagogical skills and skills for incorporating modern technology into TVET training. Instructors often work in a different field than their specialisation and teach obsolete work techniques because of the lack of skill-upgrading courses.

Recruitment criteria and competencies are not always well defined and there is no register of existing TVET trainers and their competencies. There is no system for TVET teacher training and skill-upgrading programmes. Compared to investment in TVET infrastructure, human resource development in TVET suffers from insufficient attention.

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5. Qualifications and qualifications frameworks

There are three qualification levels available in TVET. The qualification level depends on the number of years and the training institution. Normally, secondary vocational education leads to the qualification of skilled worker while post-secondary education leads to a technical diploma.

National Qualifications Framework (NQF)

MTEVT has developed job classifications and level descriptions. The qualification levels are demonstrated in the following table.

Table extracted from ETF (2004). Technical Education and Vocational Training in Yemen and its Relevance to the Labour Market. Turin: European Training Foundation.

The majority of students registered in TVET (both secondary and post-secondary) are in a two-year post-secondary programme. The following diagram shows the percentage of registered students in each TVET qualification:

Diagram extracted from Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training (2011). General Administration Information Systems Statistical Bulletin (2010-2011). Sana'a city: Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training.

Quality assurance

MTEVT is in charge of assuring quality of the TVET system. The Ministry works according to the Total Quality System (TQS) which aims at developing performance at all education levels. MTEVT focuses on preparing its staff and the staff of related branches in the application of TQS. The Ministry considers spreading a culture of quality assurance within the institution as the main component of TQS.

MTEVT acknowledges that quality assurance in TVET is a long process. The Ministry has initiated the following three activities:

  • Standard setting for short courses - The Ministry developed standards for short-courses in tailoring and cutting which are the most widely spread trades on the labour market. The criteria include standards for training staff, course timeframe, equipment and facility standard, curricula and training cost.
  • Standard setting for private TVET institutions - Private TVET institutions are obliged to comply with a set of standards to be awarded a certificate. The criteria include building specifications, standards for managing staff, teaching staff and equipment.
  • Development of job descriptions - TVET institutions are encouraged to develop job descriptions consistently through special workshops held by MTEVT.

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6. Current and ongoing reforms, projects, and challenges

Current reforms and major projects

The TVET sector constitutes an important component of the Yemeni education system with a mandate linked directly to the social and economic development of the country. Recognising this mandate, the TVET sector has gained increased importance as an instrument of national policy in terms of poverty alleviation labour market development, and rationalisation of the education system. For instance, MTEVT with support from the European Union and the World Bank developed the Technical Education and Vocational Training Development Plan (2005 -2014). Its strategic objectives relate to poverty reduction and sustainable social and economic development.


In 2007, a joint World Bank and European Union report identified some challenges for TVET in Yemen:

  • low absorption capacity of the vocational centres and technical institutes;
  • predominance of theoretical subjects over practical aspects;
  • delayed follow-up of the developments and advances in their fields; and
  • unsuitable output in relation to the needs of the labour market.

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7. Statistical information(*)

Population (Million)







Average yearly population growth rate 2005 - 2010

+3.3 %

For comparison:
Global average yearly population growth rate 2005-2010: 1.17%
10.26 10.39
female male  
10.58 10.71
female male  
10.91 11.04
female male  
11.24 11.38
female male  
11.59 11.74
female male  
11.95 12.10
female male  

49.71 %

49.7 %

49.69 %

49.69 %

49.68 %

49.68 %

(Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on UN ESA: World Population Prospects/ the 2010 revision)

GDP per capita (currency: US$)










1 190

1 077

1 300

(Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC based on World Bank Database)

Employment (Million)

total female male


11.95 12.10
Labour Force
Labour Force Rate




Labour Force


0.61 (11.8%) 4.59 (88.2%)
Unemployment Rate






0.25 (32.1%) 0.53 (67.9%)

Table compiled by UNESCO-UNEVOC base on ILO: Key indicators of the labour market

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8. Links to UNEVOC centres and TVET institutions

UNEVOC Centres

TVET Institutions

  • Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training (MTEVT)

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    9. References, bibliography, abbreviations


  • ETF (2004). Technical Education and Vocational Training in Yemen and its Relevance to the Labour Market. Turin: European Training Foundation.
  • Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training (2011). General Administration Information Systems Statistical Bulletin (2010-2011). Sana'a city: Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training.
  • Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training (2012). Job Classifications and Level Descriptions. Accessed: 04 July 2013.
  • Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training (2014). Development Plan (2005 -2014) Sana'a city: Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training.
  • UNESCO-IBE (2011). World Data on Education VII Ed. 2010/11. Yemen. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE.
  • Webpage of the Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training.
  • World Bank (2007). Project Information Document – TVET Yemen. Accessed: 11 September 2013.

  • MTEVT - Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training
  • MOE - Ministry of Education
  • TQS - Total Quality System
  • VTTSDF - Vocational and Technical Training Skill Development Fund
  • MHESR - Ministry for Higher Education and Scientific Research

    Published by: UNESCO-UNEVOC
    Publication Date: 2013-09-18
    Validated by: Ms Fairouz Mahmood Abd Alwali;
    Director of Curricula Technical Office;
    Ministry of Technical Education and Vocational Training (MTEVT);

page date 2017-05-05

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