Gender Issues and TVET
Vocational skills development is often considered to be an effective strategy to empower marginalized groups in a society by increasing their employability. At the same time, access to skills training provided by formal technical and vocational training institutions is often limited for these groups. There are various reasons for this, such as insufficient basic education qualifications, direct and indirect costs of enrolment, lack of understanding of the usefulness of training, etc.
Young women from poor communities are especially disadvantaged in this regard, due to community or family beliefs that undermine the potential role women can play to contribute to sustainable and productive livelihoods. Available training opportunities are often confined to ‘feminine’ areas, which may not necessarily lead to profitable work. Even when enrolled in training courses in more male dominated areas, girls and women can face barriers, e.g. when the learning environments are de-motivating and do not take into account their specific needs.
Organizations tackling TVET gender issues
- The Bureau for Gender Equality (http://www.ilo.org/gender/lang--en/index.htm)The Bureau for Gender Equality of International labour Organization supports and advises constituents and Office staff at headquarters and in the field on matters concerned with promoting and advocating for gender equality in the world of work.
- The Australian WAVE network of women involved in TVET (http://www.wave.org.au/)WAVE is a national network of women involved in VET, ACE and the broad field of work-related education and training.
- United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/)UNDAW advocates the improvement of the status of women of the world, and the achievement of their equality with men –as equal actors, partners, and beneficiaries of sustainable development, human rights, peace and security.
- UNESCO Gender in Education Website (http://www.unescobkk.org/education/programmes/gender-in-education). Gender is one of UNESCO's priority areas
- FAWA Forum for Afriacan Women Educationlists (http://www.fawe.org/about/index.php). FAWE is a pan-African Non-Governmental Organisation working in 32 African countries to empower girls and women through gender-responsive education.
- International Journal of Manpower, Issue 4 2006 - Special issue: Vocational education, race and gender (http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContainer.do;jsessionid=C578D3716D8862C456FB8011FB52242B?containerType=Issue&containerId=24096)
- Gender Issues in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (http://www.adeanet.org/adeaPortal/adea/Biennale%202008/Documentation/Papers%20for%20presentation/05.%20Session%205/Parallel%20session%205A/Final%20PDF%20documents/Session%205A%20Doc%202%20Gaidzanwa%20ENG.pdf), by Ms. Rudo B. Gaidzanwa. Draft prepared for the ADEA 2008 Biennale on Education in Africa (http://www.adeanet.org/adeaPortal/adea/Biennale%202008/en_Papers.htm) with the topic "Beyond Primary Education: Challenges and Approaches to Expanding Learning Opportunities in Africa"
- Women in Education & Employment 2010 (http://www.etf.europa.eu/pubmgmt.nsf/%28getAttachment%29/3DB37E1BDD93E04EC12571AA0036E14D/%24File/NOTE6RNDPF.pdf)
- Gender Issues in Technical Training and Vocational Education Programs (http://www.iadb.org/document.cfm?id=1481450)Caroline S. Fawcett and Sarah Howden, Washington, D.C., October 1998 (44 pages)
- German Federal Institute of Vocational Education and Training page on Women in TVET (http://www.bibb.de/en/18287.htm)
- Addressing Women's Ways of Knowing to Improve the Technology Education Environment for All Students (http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v10n2/zuga.html)Journal of Technology Education, Volume 10, Number 2, Spring 1999
- Education and Training of Women and the Girl-child (http://www.un.org/womenwatch/forums/review/Edu_Training_Women_Girl-child.pdf) Kate N. Lifanda, Online discussion for the review of Beijing+10, (UNESCO/UNICEF), 2005
- Getting Girls Out of Work and Into School (http://www2.unescobkk.org/elib/publications/089/girls.pdf)Policy brief. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok, 2006.
- WikiGender (http://www.wikigender.org) Wikigender is a project initiated by the OECD Development Centre (http://www.oecd.org/dev) to facilitate the exchange and improve the knowledge on gender-related issues around the world. A particular focus lies on gathering empirical evidence and identifying adequate statistics to measure gender equality, including education related data.
- Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and skills development for poverty reduction – do rural women benefit? (http://www.fao-ilo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/fao_ilo/pdf/Papers/25_March/Hartl-formatted_01.pdf) Hartl, Maria, International Fund for Agricultural Development, 2009
- UNEVOC e-Forum discussion on "Women Empowerment...through TVET?", January 2010 (http://www.unevoc.unesco.org/forum.php?lang=en&skin=efor&show=878)
- Gender Mainstreaming in Education, by Elsa Leo-Rhynie and the Institute of Development and Labour Law,University of Cape Town, South Africa (http://www.thecommonwealth.org/shared_asp_files/uploadedfiles/%7B2099C3F9-0AB8-4312-B3DC-B05018BA8D86%7D_gmed_ref.pdf)
- Training for Rural Development: Agricultural and Enterprise Skills for Women Smallholders (http://t4rd.skillsdevelopment.org/)- City & Guilds Centre for Skills Development