Education in Zimbabwe is administered by two Ministries: the Ministry of Education, Sports, Arts and Culture and the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education (MHTE).
The Ministry of Education, Sports, Arts and Culture is responsible for early, primary and secondary education. It runs a number of secondary schools that offer technical and vocational courses.
The MHTE was established in 1988 and is in charge of higher and tertiary education and skill training. Within the MHTE, two divisions deal with TVET: the Division of Manpower Planning and Institutional Development, and the Division of Standards Development and Quality Assurance. The former is responsible for human resource planning and institutional development – particularly of Polytechnics. The latter develops skill training, standardizes certifications and examinations.
The MHTE provdes TVET thorough eight Polytechnictechnics, two Industrial Training Centres (ITCs) and three state-assisted Vocational Training Centres. Additionally, the MHTE runs apprenticeship programmes.
Skill training is offered by the Ministry of Youth Development, Indigenisation and Empowerment; and the Ministry of Women’s Affairs Gender and Community Develoment. The Ministry of Education, Sports, Arts and Culture runs secondary schools that offer technical and vocational subjects, while the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare offers several nurse training schools. The majority of TVET institutions run by the MHTE are located in urban areas, while other ministries focus their TVET provision on rural areas.
The National Manpower Advisory Council (NAMACO) is charged with making recommendations on human resource development and skill training and provides advice in the field.
The TVET system in Zimbabwe is funded through the following sources:
Depending on the year’s revenue plan, public TVET institutions receive budget allocations which cover employment and operational costs, as well as funding for capital development projects. State-assisted TVET providers benefit from funding for employment costs, while private TVET institutions do not receive any public funding.
Students pay their fees (tuition, examination fees, etc.) directly to the institution. Income generated through student fees is administered under the Tertiary Education Development Fund which is overseen by the Treasury. Students from disadvantaged backgrounds benefit from a tuition fee waiver that is awarded under the Cadetship Scheme which is part of the National Education Training Fund.
- Income-generating activities
These activities are run internally by the TVET institutions and can comprise of different types of projects, saving schemes and investments.
- Zimbabwe Manpower Development Fund (ZIMDEF)
The Fund provides TVET institutions with resources for training material and equipment, infrastructure improvement and expansion. Additionally, the Fund finances skill upgrade courses for semi-skilled workers and apprenticeship training. Funding is generated through a 1% training levy paid by employers from their monthly wage expenses.