Promising Practices in TVET

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UNESCO, together with other international organizations, has an important role to play in identifying and disseminating the knowledge and evidence necessary to make relevant and effective TVET policies.

Following the requests of Member States, the UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre initiated efforts to identify and gather evidence of promising TVET policies and reforms for global dialogue and use. Whether a TVET policy or practice proves to be good or best practice depends significantly on national and local contexts. Therefore, UNESCO-UNEVOC uses the term 'promising practices'.

This collection of 'promising practices' draws upon three sources of information, namely case studies and related articles published by the UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre, promising practices that were presented during the Third TVET Congress, and the global trends and issues in TVET that were identified for the UNESCO World TVET report.


Third International Congress on TVET, Shanghai, 14-16 May 2012

TopicTitle of initiativeDescriptionCountry
QualificationsCompleting secondary education within 8 monthsThe programme encourages workers to transfer prior knowledge and learn additionally to get a secondary education certificate.Thailand
QualificationsNew qualifications system in PolandThe new system includes the Polish Qualifications Framework, National qualifications register, validation, credit accumulation and transfer, quality assurance. There are complementary reforms on new secondary VET curricula, external examination system, qualifications framework for higher education, and general education curricula.Poland
QualificationsBuilding qualifications in partnershipAfter a strategic study on the development of professional training until 2020 done by the Ministry of Labour and Professional Training, socio-economic partners and other training departments, a project was implemented in the national framework of qualifications with 3 sub-systems. The project has consolidated the partnership between education and training mechanisms, employers and employee representatives (unions). It ensures the participation of social partners .Morocco
QualificationsSkilled migration and international recognition of TVET qualificationsNationally recognised and consistent qualifications should be available to expatriate workers to gain the recognition and better remuneration in overseas markets. Concrete projects include expanding the training provision, providing grants for trainees, and upgrading training courses and institutes.Bangladesh
Monitoring and evaluationIncreasing efficiency, effectiveness and the relevance of TVETThe initiative identified generic skills set in the 21st century workplace, and made the national technical education and skills development plan 2011-2016. A monitoring and evaluation framework was developed.Philippines
GovernancePolicy reorientation towards rural-urban integrated TVETA TVET framework for agriculture, farmers and rural areas was developed to seek a harmonious and integrated development of rural and urban vocational education and training. The new policy will give particular support for the financially disadvantaged. More career pathways for vocational students are developed to ensure better life through better skill training .China
GovernanceAn Industry-driven systemBy establishing Industry Skills Councils with the participation of employer organisations, unions, individual employers, and training specialists, this system facilitates industry input to the development and review of training packages, including curriculum and qualifications. It facilitates the collection of information about the marketplace, the publication of an industry environmental scans and thus promotes workforce development.Australia
FinancingIncreasing enrolment in tertiary level TVETThe government created the Nuevo Milenio Scholarship for TVET careers and state guaranteed loan programme to stimulate the enrolment of TVET institutions.Chile
AccessClosing access gaps to Higher EducationThe government established regional centres of Higher Education. They are centred at the supply of Higher Education Programs, relevant to the socioeconomic needs of each region. They promote the conformation of alliances to share human resources, financial resources and infrastructure and connectivity.Colombia
EquityPolicies and practices to promote equality in TVETNew policies are developed to provide financial aid to economically disadvantaged families, to establish special schools to admit disabled students in TVET training, to provide training for farmers and migrant workers, and to prioritize TVET learning underdeveloped areas.China
TeachersSupporting professional development of TVET teachersPublic funding for VET providers caters to staff development costs. The government supports the continuing training of VET teachers and makes available work practice programmes for VET teachers.Finland
QualityScaling Up and Improving the Quality of Education of the Middle Level Health WorkersThe government makes efforts to expand human resources for health in terms of both number and qualifications. Articulation between education and work was enhanced. Technical qualification based on users/population health needs was developed.Brazil
Entrepreneurial educationPartnership for entrepreneurial educationA partnership model for entrepreneurial education was created to ensure higher impact, sustainability and efficiency.Jordan
Sector-based TVET institutionsThe TVET sectorial Centre in Senegal,This case study looks at good practices in linking TVET providers with enterprises in specific sectors through partnership and enterprise-based training.Senegal
Promoting TVETPromoting the Attractiveness of TVET in the Context of Secondary Education ReformThe case study presents the challenges of promotion of TVET in the context of wider reform of secondary education using the experience of the Caribbean Examinations Council.It argues that TVET must be strategically positioned within a wider education transformation construct and aligned to 21st Century learning competencies.Caribbean
Youth transition from school to workTVET policy and programmes targeting youth school to work transition in AustraliaMany TVET strategies are specifically designed to help youth access to labour market. The case study presents Australia policy and programmes.Australia
Non-formal and informal learningInformal Waste Workers Learn outside of School and Reduce Global Warming.The case of the Cairo recyclers illustrates how learning is anchored in the local practice or recycling, the joy of working, the fulfillment of earning income, the dynamism of trading, accessing credit, and the imperative of organizing communities.Egypt

UNESCO’s review of global trends and issues in TVET

TopicTitle of initiativeDescriptionCountry
TVET reformsTVET reforms building blocks in Korea and FinlandThe Republic of Korea and Finland are both widely recognised for successfully implementing extensive and coherent TVET reforms over the past decade or so. Each country has reformed TVET in ways that are proving to be consistent with their local contexts. These reforms concern both initial and continuing TVET, and provide a good example of the TVET issues.Korea and Finland
Evidence based policiesEvidence based VET policies in European UnionThis case study provides information regarding trend towards evidence based policy making in Europe. It emphasizes the importance of a transparent and accountable policy making process.European Union
Institutional framework for lifelong learningProgress in implementing Human Resources Development Strategy in ChinaChina places its policies for the promotion of lifelong learning within a human resources development (HRD) perspective. This case study examines the institutional development framework and the progress made in reaching a very wide range of learners in increasing numbers at different stages of their life courseChina
Institution as learning environmentThe linkage of between employers and the Natural Resources College, Lilongwe, MalawiThis case study looks at good practices in linking TVET providers with both formal sector employment and informal sector employment.Malawi
Public-Private Partnership in TVETA novel education model in Singapore's Institute of Technological EducationSingapore's Institute of Technological Education (ITE) is a well-funded college open to learners who have completed compulsory or upper secondary education. This case examines how ITE, managers, teachers and partners have worked hard to create a “hands-on, mind-on and hearts-on” education model. Industry collaboration and partnership are integral to how ITE works, and a broad curriculum that emphasises learning for competence is at its centre.Singapore
GovernanceHuman Resources Development strategies for national developmentThis case study looks at 3 countries that have been most successful in delivering on their national development goals in the past years. The focus is made on a set of nations that had also made human resources development (HRD) a central part of their TVET approach. The case explains how the three countries have sought to avoid ministerial “silos” of responsibility for bits of the TVET system and have sought to build inter-ministerial cooperation towards “joined-up” HRD policies aimed at contributing to national development.Finland, Malaysia and South Africa
Quality of teaching and learning processesThe Teaching and Learning Research Programme of the United KingdomThere is no simple recipe for achieving an appropriate mix of approaches to teaching and learning that will be effective in all modern TVET contexts. Policymakers, managers in schools and businesses, TVET teachers and trainers must adapt TVET to their own circumstances. This case study presents a large-scale UK research programme that has attempted to map out key criteria for effective teaching and learning in TVET.United Kingdom
Hybrid education provisionHybrid education provision in upper-secondary educationThis work looks at hybrid education provision in upper-secondary education. The country cases illustrate the trend towards more hybrid approaches in the provision of programmes and qualifications, and in the organization of educational institutions.Austria, France, Germany, India, Korea, Netherlands, Russia and USA
Youth transition from school to workJovenes programmes targetting youth transition from school to workMany TVET strategies are specifically designed to help youth access to labour market through job-related skills programmes. This case study presents how to best link basic skills with technical and vocational skills so as to facilitate entry to employment for targeted groups of young people. Argentina, Chile, Peru and Uruguay
Validation of prior learningNew opportunity initiatives and centres in PortugalThis case study looks at validation of prior learning scheme in Portugal. Portugal is showing the greatest progress in validating informal and non-formal learning outcomes for an important number of beneficiaries.Portugal

Publications by UNESCO-UNEVOC

TopicTitle of initiativeDescriptionCountry
ApprenticeshipsSchaack, K. (2008) Why Do German Companies Invest in Apprenticeships? The "Dual System" Revisited. Discussion paper seriesThis paper provides an analysis of Germany’s “dual system” of education, as well as a comparison of this model to the involvement of industry in training in other countries.Germany
ApprenticeshipsRauner, F. & Smith, E. (Eds.) (2010) Rediscovering Apprenticeship. TVET book seriesA book on current practices and issues, both exisiting and lacking, in the field of apprenticeships. Case studies and the input of leading researchers make this book valuable for policy-makers and scholars alike.Country case studies from: Australia, France, Hungary, Ireland, Netherlands, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America
Conflict and emergenciesUNEVOC (2007) Education for Livelihoods and Civic Participation in Post-Conflict Countries. Conceptualizing a Holistic Approach to TVET Planning and Programming in Sub-Saharan Africa. Discussion paper seriesThis paper outlines the role of education, particularly TVET, in the reconstruction process of communities in post-conflict countries in sub-Saharan Africa, using case studies and reviews of relevant literature.Liberia, Sudan, Uganda
EntrepreneurshipSimiyu, J. (2010) Entrepreneurship Education as a Tool to Support Self-Employment in Kenya. Series: TVET Best Practice ClearinghouseA report on the progress of the notion of “Best practice” introduced in TVET institutions in Kenya in 1994, and Kenya’s efforts in training young people more effectively for the workplace for self-employment.Kenya
EntrepreneurshipKonayuma, G. S. (2010) TEVET Graduate Empowerment Toolkit Scheme. Series: TVET Best Practice ClearinghouseThis paper examines the Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training (TEVET) Graduate Empowerment Toolkit Scheme in Zambia, launched in 2007 in an effort to curb youth unemployment.Zambia
Financing TVETDubois, R.& Balgobin, K. (2010) Sustaining the Financing of Training Through Continuous Improvement of the Levy-Grant System. Series: TVET Best Practice ClearinghouseFunding TVET is important to sustain quality training and keep up with the demands of the industry. This book questions where funding for quality TVET should come from.Mauritius
Gender and TVETMisola, N. (2010) Improving the Participation of Female Students in TVET Programmes Formerly Dominated by Males – The Experience of Selected Colleges and Technical Schools in the Philippines. Case studies seriesA case study detailing the policies and practices of certain institutes in the Philippines encouraging gender-equal training environments to enhance the role of women in national development.Philippines
Informal TVETSingh, M. (2005) Meeting Basic Learning Needs in the Informal Sector. Integrating education and training for decent work, empowerment and citizenship. TVET book seriesThe anthology highlights facts about basic learning needs and skills of people working and living in the informal economy. The case studies illustrate what essential skills and which learning needs are necessary for productive work.Bangladesh; Egypt; India; Nepal; Nicaragua
Informal TVETHaan, H. C. (2006) Training for Work in the Informal Micro-Enterprise Sector. Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa. TVET book seriesAn analysis of informal apprenticeships in sub-Saharan Africa (80-90% of all ongoing training efforts) and the challenges that are encountered, including the lack of transferable skills to IME operators.Cameroon; Kenya; Senegal; Tanzania; Zambia
Informal TVETUNEVOC (2011) Skills Development Package “Learning and Working: Motivating for Skills DevelopmentAn information package composed of a set of short films and documents, aimed at motivating motivate people living in adverse economic conditions to enroll in TVET courses and take up self-employment activities.Haiti
Information and Communication TechnologiesMahmood, T. (to be published 2012) Integrating ICT in technical and vocational education and training in the Asia and Pacific Region. Case studies seriesThis book provides a general overview of the Asia and Pacific Region, in terms of available ICT infrastructure. Using case studies from several countries in the region, the book highlights the divides among these countries in terms of resources but also showcases the efforts made to integrate ICT in education at all levels.Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh
Labour market linkagesSchnarr, A.,Yang, S. & Gleissner, K. (2008) Vocational Education and Training and the Labour Market – A Comparative Analysis of China and Germany. Discussion paper seriesThis paper compares the models of the (vocational) education system in both Germany and China, and how they succeed in training workers in order to meet the needs of the labour market. The paper takes into account the different cultural backgrounds and legal frameworks as well as historical and recent developments within the education system of both countries.China, Germany
National Qualifications SystemsUNEVOC/Scottish Qualifications Authority (2006) The Development of a National System of Vocational Qualifications. Discussion paper series The aim of the document is to inform readers about the development of national qualifications systems and to provide guidance for countries aiming to set up or reform their systems.United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Non-formal TVETAgrawal, V.K. (to be published 2012) Community Polytechnics in India: Achievements, Practices and Lessons Learnt. Case studies seriesThis paper retraces the implementation of the Community polytechnics scheme in India and highlights its advantages, disadvantages, opportunities and challenges. It highlights the importance of Community polytechnics as a vital link in a country’s TVET delivery by providing the missing links in rural development work.India
Sustainable Development in TVETUNEVOC (2010) Integrating Sustainable Development in Technical and Vocational Education and Training – Six Case Studies from Southern and Eastern Africa. Case studies seriesThe authors have described and analysed experiences and practices relating to integrating ESD in TVET in selected African countries, identifying gaps that need action.Botswana, Kenya, Mauritius, Malawi, Zambia
Sustainable Development in TVETJohn Fien, J., Maclean R. & Park, M. (Eds.) (2009) Work, Learning and Sustainable Development: Opportunities and Challenges. TVET book seriesThis book showcases how countries are integrating sustainability in their TVET systems. It includes information on policy reforms, curricula, campus management programmes and innovative approaches on the job and in community service, with focus on challenges and ways of moving forward.Country case studies from: Australia, Canada, China, Finland, Germany, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, South Africa, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America
Sustainable Development in TVETWillis, P., McKenzie, S. & Harris, R. (Eds.) (2009) Rethinking Work and Learning: Adult and Vocational Education for Social Sustainability. TVET book seriesThis book explores how social sustainability can be integrated into Adult and Vocational Education. Job training needs re-orientation to include life-specific learning, e.g. by including elements of environmental science, politics and arts, and dialogic and collaborative teaching and learning.Country case studies from: Australia, Sierra Leone, Philippines, Fiji, India, Thailand
Sustainable Development in TVETUNEVOC (2009) Developing Innovative Approaches to ESDThe project, conducted by UNEVOC Centres in Australia and China, conceptualized students’ attitudes towards SD in the context of their current studies and future employment in 27 TVET programmes, among which accounting, agriculture, IT, machinery, printing and tourism, and highlighted the main pedagogical issues.China
TVET institutionsSimiyu, J. W. (2009) Revitalizing a Technical Training Institute in Kenya - A Case Study of Kaiboi Technical Training Institute, Eldoret, Kenya. Case studies seriesThe case study highlights the steps undertaken by the institute’s management to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the school, its enrolment rates, teacher morale and student achievement and satisfaction, focusing on the role of the institutional manager. Kenya
TVET reformsBünning, F. (2006) The Transformation of VET in the Baltic States. Survey of Reforms and Developments. Discussion paper seriesThe Baltic States have enjoyed special attention in European VET policy. This publication critically examines the reforms in TVET and its structures in the Baltic States.Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia
TVET systemsGuo, Z. & Lamb, S. (2010) International Comparisons of China’s TVET System. TVET book seriesThe authors develop a set of internationally comparable criteria to assess how well China’s TVET system is performing compared to other countries, using the province of Yunnan to represent the challenges faced nationwide. China
TVET teachersBünning, F & Shilela, A. (2006) The Bologna Declaration and Emerging Models of TVET Teacher Training in Germany. Discussion paper seriesThe Bologna reform in Germany challenges universities concerned with TVET teacher training, given the professional nature of this orientation. Advantages and disadvantages for students and employers are highlighted. Germany
Vocational identityBrown, A., Kirpal, S. & Rauner, F. (Eds.) (2007) Identities at Work. TVET book seriesThis volume discusses identity formation processes at work, especially in manufacturing and service organizations, with regard to increasing skills flexibility and work mobility. Germany, Denmark, Greece, Japan, Norway, United States of America
Vocational identityKirpal, S. (2011) Labour-Market Flexibility and Individual CareersThis book analyses how labour-market trends, organizational changes and individuals’ work orientations interact, using work orientations and employment histories of nurses and ICT technicians in Germany and the UK as example. Germany, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Vocationalization of Higher EducationLauglo, J. & Maclean, R. (Eds.) (2005) Vocationalisation of Secondary Education Revisited. TVET book seriesThe book debates on the pros and cons of the vocationalization of secondary education, with particular reference to Africa, in terms of their effectiveness inpreparing young people for the world of work.Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, USA
Vocationalization of Higher EducationUNEVOC (2009) The Changing Status of Vocational Higher Education in Contemporary Japan and the Republic of Korea. Discussion paper seriesThe paper provides an overview of vocationally-oriented higher education institutions in Japan and ROK and seeks to locate them in a historical, comparative and organizational framework. Competitive against universities in 1990s-2000s, they are losing this edge due to the vocationalization of universities that they themselves have largely stimulated. Japan, Republic of Korea
Work-based learningBillett, S., Fenwick, T. & Somerville, M. (Eds.) (2006) Work, Subjectivity and Learning: Understanding Learning through Working LifeA broad set of workplace factors, work-related activities and interactions shape workers’ learning and development. The relation between subjectivity, work and learning, and the circumstances in which they are played out, are analysed through country case studies. With country case studies from Australia, Canada, Finland, New Zealand, United States of America, Sweden, Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Work-based learningFalk, I., Catts, R. & Wallace, R. (Eds.) (2011) Vocational Learning. Innovative Theory and Practice. TVET book seriesThe formal TVET sector must ask itself what it can do to improve informal TVET. With a discussion of policy implications, this book is a tool to understand the factors that generate effective educational and workforce outcomes through formal and informal learning, including for Indigenous peoples.With country case studies from Australia, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America, Germany, Indonesia

Case Studies

see Promising Practices List

  • South-south cooperation in Bangladesh: Setting up an ICT Training Centre (pdf)

page date 2014-02-13

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